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Sperm Cells attracted By Ovary Scent, Even in Weakened State

A new study by scientists at Indiana University Bloomington have reported that mouse sperm cells are capable of tracking the faintest of scents. //Sperm cells were bang on target, even when ovary extracts were extremely diluted.

"Sperm are known to exhibit chemotaxis toward extracts from various female reproductive organs, but the role of chemotaxis in reproduction is not known," said IUB Associate Professor of Chemistry Stephen C. Jacobson. "The chemicals that actually attract sperm have not been identified. Systematic study of various compounds released by the female reproductive organs under various conditions might further our understanding of these processes." Understanding why, how and when sperm are attracted to ovaries may help scientists understand problems with human conception.

"Defects in sperm chemotaxis may be a cause of infertility, and consequently, sperm chemotaxis could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool to determine sperm quality or as a therapeutic procedure in male infertility," Jacobson said.

The project is a collaboration between research groups led by Jacobson and IUB Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Milos V. Novotny. Their work led to the development of a "flow-through" device, a sort of liquid treadmill for sperm cells, which allows researchers to follow the lateral movement of sperm as the cells swim through a liquid medium.

The device feeds three streams of liquid into a single chamber. Beyond the chamber, flows are split into three exit streams. Flow rate can be regulated simply by raising or lowering the height of the source medium, in this case a buffer solution. The researchers affixed a microscope and camera to the device and then recorded video of the sperm during assays.

"We combined in a microfluidic device the ability to generate a chemical gradient with transporting sperm cells to evaluate sperm chemotaxis," Jacobson said. "The use of microfluidic devices appears
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