Navigation Links
New study suggests stem cells sabotage their own DNA to produce new tissues
Date:2/15/2010

A new study from the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) and the University of Ottawa suggests that stem cells intentionally break their own DNA as a way of regulating tissue development. The study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), could dramatically change how researchers think about tissue development, stem cells and cancer.

Human cells contain 46 strands of DNA that code for all our genes. Certain chemicals and UV light can break these strands into pieces, a process that has traditionally been considered a bad thing, leading to cell death or diseases such as cancer if the damage is not repaired quickly. The new research, led by Dr. Lynn Megeney, shows for the first time that stem cells will intentionally cut and then repair their own DNA as a mechanism of activating genes that promote the development of new tissues.

The project started as an attempt to understand how stem cells give rise to new muscle fibres. In 2002, Dr. Megeney and his team discovered that this process of producing new muscle was somehow connected to another important process called programmed cell death, which the body uses to get rid of unwanted cells. When they blocked or removed a key death-promoting protein called caspase 3, they found that stem cells stopped producing new muscle fibres.

"This discovery was very controversial at the time, but dozens of research groups have now reported that cell death proteins control the maturation process of most stem cell types," says Dr. Megeney. "In the last few years, the big mystery has been how cell death proteins manage this complex process."

Now in the 2010 study Dr. Megeney and his team believe they have solved the mystery. They have discovered that the novel effect of caspase 3 in stem cells is related to its ability to activate another protein that cuts up the cell's DNA (called caspase-activated DNase) and has also traditionally been associated with programmed cell death. When they blocked this DNA-cutting protein, they also blocked muscle development. They also showed that when the DNA cutting occurs at a key gene known to promote muscle development, it activates that gene and induces the development of new muscle.

"Our research suggests that when a gene is damaged, it can actually increase the expression of that gene, as long as the damage is repaired quickly. This is a novel way for a gene to become activated," says Dr. Megeney. "We've shown that this process is crucial for the development of new muscle tissue, but we believe it may be important for the development of most other tissues as well."

The discovery has important implications for a number of areas. It could help researchers develop better ways to activate stem cells, so that they can produce new tissues for therapeutic purposes. It also suggests that DNA mutations, which can contribute to a variety of diseases, may initially occur as a result of a normal cellular process. And it has implications for researchers developing therapies that inhibit programmed cell death, suggesting that such therapies may also inhibit normal tissue development.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jennifer Paterson
jpaterson@ohri.ca
613-798-5555 x73325
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Penn study finds pro-death proteins required to regulate healthy immune function
2. New study shows promise in reducing surgical risks associated with surgical bleeding
3. Study, meta-analysis examine factors associated with death from heatstroke
4. Study suggests loss of 2 types of neurons -- not just 1 -- triggers Parkinsons symptoms
5. Study says COPD testing is not measuring up
6. Preclinical study suggests organ-transplant drug may aid in lupus fight
7. Ability to cope with stress can increase good cholesterol in older white men, study finds
8. High alcohol consumption increases stroke risk, Tulane study says
9. Mailman School of Public Health study examines link between racial discrimination and substance use
10. Pitt study finds inequality in tobacco advertising
11. Stanford study highlights cost-effective method of lowering heart disease risks
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:1/22/2017)... ... January 22, 2017 , ... "Photo Cloud allows FCPX users to ... 3D slideshow with complete ease," said Christina Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. ... the FCPX timeline. Presets include scenes with one, three, four or five ...
(Date:1/21/2017)... ... January 21, 2017 , ... Caronlab Australia, an Australian ... January ECRM Trade Show in Hilton Head, SC, where it benefited from outstanding meetings ... quality of its beauty and wellness products. At this trade show, the company had ...
(Date:1/21/2017)... ... ... "ProDOF is the perfect set of tools for video editors that want to create the ... Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. , Video editors using ProDOF can add ... DSLR racking focus from one area into the next. ProDOF comes with 0.5 second, ...
(Date:1/21/2017)... ... January 21, 2017 , ... Phytocéane invites you to take an ... of the world with ZANZIBAR SHOWER GEL. Inspired by the beauty of Zanzibar, a ... Oil and moisturizing vegetal coral to create this gentle, crystal-clear shower gel to cleanse ...
(Date:1/21/2017)... ... January 21, 2017 , ... Northern California Medical Associates ... joined their multi-specialty medical group. The dermatology practice provides general dermatologic treatment, outpatient ... to add this excellent dermatology practice to our group’s medical services,” explains NCMA ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:1/19/2017)... , Jan. 19, 2017 This report ... current and future scenario of the global market. Large ... opioid consumption. Severe chronic constipation is a major side ... traditional laxatives. Hence, novel targeted therapy has been prescribed ... sufferers, launch of targeted medicines, and growing awareness about ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... Accuray Incorporated (Nasdaq: ARAY ) ... to set the bar for excellence in customer satisfaction. ... satisfaction rating among radiation treatment delivery systems in the ... Intelligence Briefing™. The most recent ratings trend also shows ... peers for 11 of the past 12 quarters. ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... January 19, 2017 Shire plc ... the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has acknowledged ... Drug Application (NDA) for SHP465, a long-acting, triple-bead, mixed ... potential once-daily treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The FDA ... June 20, 2017, the designated Prescription Drug User Fee ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: