Navigation Links
New study suggests stem cells sabotage their own DNA to produce new tissues
Date:2/15/2010

A new study from the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) and the University of Ottawa suggests that stem cells intentionally break their own DNA as a way of regulating tissue development. The study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), could dramatically change how researchers think about tissue development, stem cells and cancer.

Human cells contain 46 strands of DNA that code for all our genes. Certain chemicals and UV light can break these strands into pieces, a process that has traditionally been considered a bad thing, leading to cell death or diseases such as cancer if the damage is not repaired quickly. The new research, led by Dr. Lynn Megeney, shows for the first time that stem cells will intentionally cut and then repair their own DNA as a mechanism of activating genes that promote the development of new tissues.

The project started as an attempt to understand how stem cells give rise to new muscle fibres. In 2002, Dr. Megeney and his team discovered that this process of producing new muscle was somehow connected to another important process called programmed cell death, which the body uses to get rid of unwanted cells. When they blocked or removed a key death-promoting protein called caspase 3, they found that stem cells stopped producing new muscle fibres.

"This discovery was very controversial at the time, but dozens of research groups have now reported that cell death proteins control the maturation process of most stem cell types," says Dr. Megeney. "In the last few years, the big mystery has been how cell death proteins manage this complex process."

Now in the 2010 study Dr. Megeney and his team believe they have solved the mystery. They have discovered that the novel effect of caspase 3 in stem cells is related to its ability to activate another protein that cuts up the cell's DNA (called caspase-activated DNase) and has also traditionally been associated with programmed cell death. When they blocked this DNA-cutting protein, they also blocked muscle development. They also showed that when the DNA cutting occurs at a key gene known to promote muscle development, it activates that gene and induces the development of new muscle.

"Our research suggests that when a gene is damaged, it can actually increase the expression of that gene, as long as the damage is repaired quickly. This is a novel way for a gene to become activated," says Dr. Megeney. "We've shown that this process is crucial for the development of new muscle tissue, but we believe it may be important for the development of most other tissues as well."

The discovery has important implications for a number of areas. It could help researchers develop better ways to activate stem cells, so that they can produce new tissues for therapeutic purposes. It also suggests that DNA mutations, which can contribute to a variety of diseases, may initially occur as a result of a normal cellular process. And it has implications for researchers developing therapies that inhibit programmed cell death, suggesting that such therapies may also inhibit normal tissue development.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jennifer Paterson
jpaterson@ohri.ca
613-798-5555 x73325
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Penn study finds pro-death proteins required to regulate healthy immune function
2. New study shows promise in reducing surgical risks associated with surgical bleeding
3. Study, meta-analysis examine factors associated with death from heatstroke
4. Study suggests loss of 2 types of neurons -- not just 1 -- triggers Parkinsons symptoms
5. Study says COPD testing is not measuring up
6. Preclinical study suggests organ-transplant drug may aid in lupus fight
7. Ability to cope with stress can increase good cholesterol in older white men, study finds
8. High alcohol consumption increases stroke risk, Tulane study says
9. Mailman School of Public Health study examines link between racial discrimination and substance use
10. Pitt study finds inequality in tobacco advertising
11. Stanford study highlights cost-effective method of lowering heart disease risks
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:3/24/2017)... ... March 24, 2017 , ... ... spark a conversation on the current obstacles facing infection prevention and offer strategies ... deaths caused by these infections. , The print component of “Fighting Infection” ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... Dallas, Texas (PRWEB) , ... March 24, 2017 , ... ... Budget Office score is invalid because it does not obey the rules Congress has ... million full-time equivalent jobs, which the GOP reform would restore. Yet, it estimates a ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... Sedona, Arizona (PRWEB) , ... March 24, 2017 ... ... Shamangelic Healing Center, Sedona, Arizona’s Premier Center for Shamanic Healing and Spiritual Awakening, ... Jorge Luis Delgado, June 9--24, 2017. This sacred and spiritual journey during ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... ... March 24, 2017 , ... ... at the Advanced ERISA Benefit Claims Litigation seminar in Chicago, Illinois. She ... Record, The majority of cases litigated under ERISA involve claims for long-term disability ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... ... March 24, 2017 , ... Empower Brokerage, located in Southlake, ... leads programs. , In February, 2017, Empower Brokerage introduced their new “Performance Partners” ... designed to teach how to maximize their sales efforts, as well as how ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:3/24/2017)... 2017   The Accreditation Council for Medical ... in the pharmaceutical industry has appointed Dr. ... newly formed scientific advisory board. Dr. Chin will ... first ever medical affairs think tank within the ... the ACMA, please visit  www.medicalaffairsspecialist.org .  Connect ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the ... report to their offering. ... The Deep Learning: Drug Discovery and Diagnostics Market, 2017-2035 ... market of deep learning solutions within the healthcare domain. Primarily driven ... a novel solution to generate relevant insights from medical data. ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... -- GenomeDx Biosciences today announced that six abstracts featuring Decipher ... Classifier tests will be presented at the 32 nd ... March 24 to 28, 2017 in London, ... Europe,s largest urological event showcasing the ... The abstract titled "Muscle invasive bladder cancer: ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: