Navigation Links
Cryostasis (clathrate hydrates)


Cryostasis is the reversible cryopreservation of live biological objects.

Cryostasis is not cryonics. Cryostasis is not hibernation. Unlike cryostasis, cryonics is a practice of cryopreservation of legally dead people and pets.

Cryostasis was a plot in many famous science fiction novels and movies. At present, there is no any effective reversible cryopreservation procedure for live humans and mammals.

The new technology of cryostasis for biological objects using clathrate forming substances under high pressure can be promissing.[1] [2]

Living tissues cooled below the freezing point of water are damaged by the dehydration of the cells as ice is formed between the cells. The mechanism of freezing damage in living biological tissues has been elucidated by Renfret (1968) (Renfret A.P. Cryobiology: some fundamentals in surgical context. In: Cryosurgery. Rand R.W., Rinfret A.P., von Lode H., Eds. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1968) and by Mazur (1984): ice formation begins in the intercellular spaces.[3] The vapor pressure of the ice is lower than the vapor pressure of the solute water in the surrounding cells and as heat is removed at the freezing point of the solutions, the ice crystals grow between the cells, extracting water from them.

As the ice crystals grow, the volume of the cells shrinks, and the cells are crushed between the ice crystals. Additionally, as the cells shrink, the solutes inside the cells are concentrated in the remaining water, increasing the intracellular ionic strength and interfering with the organization of the proteins and other organized intercellular structures. Eventually, the solute concentration inside the cells reaches the eutectic and freezes. The final state of frozen tissues is pure ice in the former extracellular spaces, and inside the cell membranes a mixture of concentrated cellular components in ice and bound water. In general, this process is not reversible to the point of restoring the tissues to life, although there are occasional exceptions observed in nature (vitrifying polyols (i.e., insects, amphibians), thermal hysteresis proteins (insects, fish).[4] [5]

Clathrate hydrates are a class of solids in which gas molecules occupy "cages" made up of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. These "cages" are unstable when empty, collapsing into conventional ice crystal structure, but they are stabilised by the inclusion of the gas molecule within them. Most low molecular weight gases (including O2, N2, CO2, CH4, H2S, Ar, Kr, and Xe) will form a hydrate under some pressure-temperature conditions.[6]

Live biological tissues can be saturated with the clathrate-forming gas(es) by diffusion or perfusion at the appropriate pressure in the range 1–50 bars at a temperature above clathrate-forming temperature. After saturation, the biological tissue is cooled, first below the clathrate-forming temperature, but above the freezing point of water, then to a temperature where the clatharate is metastable at ambient pressure, and the pressure allowed to go to ambient. The "biological tissue" is then gradually cooled down to some appropriate temperature at normal atmospheric pressure and stored an indefinite time.

The method protects biological tissues by retention of water inside the cells by clathrate formation of the water with the introduced gases, limiting the formation of ice outside the cells.

See also

References

External links


'"/>


(Date:7/30/2015)... ... ... Google recently announced that it will be disclosing any incidents involving its ... 8, 2015 article published by Nasdaq , the powerful tech company maintains that ... cars, which such industry players as Tesla CEO Elon Musk believe may very well ...
(Date:7/30/2015)... (PRWEB) , ... July 30, 2015 , ... ... its monthly Biz Report, which takes a look at small, medium, and large ... and a business expert, conducted the business review and shared with viewers how ...
(Date:7/30/2015)... ... July 30, 2015 , ... 24/7 Care At Home, a high-quality provider ... recently announced that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) have awarded its agency ... providers. 24/7 Care At Home’s agency is one of three top Orange County agencies ...
(Date:7/30/2015)... ... 2015 , ... The need for accessibility is never greater than when we ... as well as visiting friends and family during these critical moments, hospitals around the ... - powered by ChargeItSpot , a Philadelphia-based startup that recently secured a $4M ...
(Date:7/30/2015)... ... July 30, 2015 , ... ... as the company and UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC) mutually ... With the new collaboration, OncLive’s editorial and marketing groups will help spread the ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:New Google Policy on Reporting Driverless Auto Accidents Points Out Growing Complexity of Personal Injury Law in the 21st Century, Says Law Offices of Burg and Brock 2Health News:New Google Policy on Reporting Driverless Auto Accidents Points Out Growing Complexity of Personal Injury Law in the 21st Century, Says Law Offices of Burg and Brock 3Health News:Software to Develop High-Performance Data-Driven Apps was Featured on NewsWatch Television 2Health News:24/7 Care At Home Earns a 5-Star Rating from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) 2Health News:Hospitals Add Phone Charging Stations as an Amenity for Patients and Visitors 2Health News:UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Teams with OncLive® as a Strategic Alliance Partner 2Health News:UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Teams with OncLive® as a Strategic Alliance Partner 3Health News:UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Teams with OncLive® as a Strategic Alliance Partner 4
... Elected 2008 President of the HBA, FAIRFIELD, ... at its,helm, Elizabeth M. Mutisya, MD, and a ... (HBA) continues to,mark its 30th Anniversary with an ... furthering the advancement of women leaders in,healthcare worldwide. ...
... should only,approve the proposed merger of Highmark and ... competition in,Pennsylvania, Capital BlueCross President and CEO Anita ... Smith was asked by Committee Chairman Sen. Don ... the lens of the uniquely competitive,health- insurance landscape ...
... Crowell & Moring LLP is,pleased to announce the ... office as a member of the firm,s Antitrust and ... she helped found and co-chair,the firm,s Healthcare Industry Group. ... Trade Commission (FTC), where she investigated and,prosecuted mergers, joint ...
... Prescription and ... Over-The-Counter Medications, LOS ANGELES, Jan. 30 ... aches, pains and debilitating,arthritis. Most often, pain sufferers reach for ... and how to treat it safely, effectively,and more holistically. In ...
... CAMBRIDGE, England, January 30 The next generation ... of IT and different,expectations regarding healthcare than their ... by Cambridge, UK-based Wireless Healthcare,will increase the take ... being used by the elderly., In the ...
... Michigan Chamber of,Commerce today released the following statement by ... the Michigan Chamber, in response to,Governor Granholm,s call in ... to make it easier for personal injury lawyers to ... stressed the need to work cooperatively,to move Michigan forward, ...
Cached Medicine News:Health News:Healthcare Businesswomen's Association Announces 2008 Board of Directors 2Health News:Healthcare Businesswomen's Association Announces 2008 Board of Directors 3Health News:Capital BlueCross CEO Says Meaningful Statewide Competition Must Be Key Criteria in Pennsylvania's Review of Proposed Highmark-IBC Merger 2Health News:Former FTC Attorney Christine White Joins Crowell & Moring's Health Care and Antitrust Groups 2Health News:Former FTC Attorney Christine White Joins Crowell & Moring's Health Care and Antitrust Groups 3Health News:Photos: Niavin Corporation Offers Pain Sufferers a New Way to Address Pain 2Health News:Increase in IT Skills Amongst the Elderly Will Boost Telecare Market 2
Other medicine definitionOther Tags