Navigation Links
Babies switched at birth

Babies switched at birth are babies who, because of either error or malfeasance, are interchanged with each other at birth or very soon therafter, leading them being unknowingly raised by parents who are not their biological parents. In real life, the occurrence of such a thing is highly improbable, with it having occurred, or having been asserted to have occurred, in a few cases. However, it is an idea that is a common staple in fiction.


As a literary plot device

The plot device of babies who are switched at birth, or in their cradles, has been a common one in American fiction since the 18th century. It is one of the several identifiable characteristics of melodrama that are plot devices dealing with situations that are highly improbable in real life.[1]

The use of this common theme has continued ever since. The device was used a number of times by W. S. Gilbert, including in the Gilbert and Sullivan comic operas H.M.S. Pinafore and The Gondoliers. In both cases, well-born babies were switched with commoners. Mark Twain, later used this plot device in The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson (1893), where two babies, one white and one black, are switched at birth, resulting in both passing for races that they are not.[2] It is one of the themes that made for TV movies regularly exploited in the 1970s and 1980s.[3] It continues to be a popular theme in the 1990s and 21st century with (for examples) it being employed as a plot device in Veronica Mars (the characters Cindy "Mac" Mackenzie and Madison Sinclair), in Neighbours (the characters Bree Timmins and Anne Baxter), and in The Young and the Restless (several times, including the characters Cane Ashby and Phillip Chancellor III, and the children of Lauren Fenmore Baldwin and Sheila Carter).

Although a common plot device in soap operas, it is not nearly as common as the theme of questionable paternity. Mumford states that the reason for this is that the potential causes for questionable paternity are far more wide ranging and richer in scope than those for questionable maternity, and thus provide a greater vein for soap opera scriptwriters to mine. Whereas questionable maternity can only be caused by error or malfeasance that causes babies to be switched at or after birth, questionable paternity can involve many aspects, ranging from a woman deliberately wishing to pin paternity on the wrong man, through unreported rape, to a clandestine love affair. It is relatively simple, moreover, for writers to retrofit questions of paternity to characters years on, whereas it is difficult to introduce questions of maternity after the fact.[4]

The device also occurs outside of American fiction, in stories such as The Little Michus.

In real life

In real life, such a switch is highly improbable.[1] Cases that have occurred and made the newspaper headlines include:

  • the case of Kimberly Mays, switched at birth as a result of a medical error in a hospital in Wauchula, Florida[5], the events surrounding whom were subsequently dramatized as the made-for-TV movie Switched at Birth
  • the cases of the children of two South African women, Margaret Clinton-Parker and Sandra Dawkins, whose sons were accidentally switched at birth in 1989, and who sued in the High Court of South Africa in Johannesburg in 1995, demanding damages of ZAR120,000 each from the government of the province of Gauteng for the error1, and who were later that year awarded damages to cover medical expenses and the future projected costs of visiting their biological children[6][7]

Hospitals take fingerprints, foot prints, or palm prints of newborns in order to prevent babies being mixed up. Nurses also double check with the mother, checking the identity of that person as well, in order to prevent errors.[8][9]


  • Note 1: Clinton-Parker v Administrator, Transvaal; Dawkins v Administrator, Transvaal 1996 (2) SA 37 (W)


  1. ^ a b Lori Merish (2004). "Melodrama and American Fiction", in Shirley Samuels: A Companion To American Fiction 1780-1865. Blackwell Publishing, 192. ISBN 0631234225.
  2. ^ Gregg Crane (2002). "The positivist alternative", in Ross Posnock: Race, Citizenship, and Law in American Literature. Cambridge University Press, 174–182. ISBN 0521010934.
  3. ^ Kerry Segrave (1999). Movies at Home: How Hollywood Came to Television. McFarland & Company, 139. ISBN 0786406542.
  4. ^ Laura Stempel Mumford (1995). "Plotting paternity: Looking for dad on the daytime soaps", in Robert C. Allen: To Be Continued. . .: Soap Operas Around the World. Routledge, 138–169. ISBN 0415110068.
  5. ^ Martin Guggenheim (2005). What's Wrong With Children's Rights?. Harvard University Press, 56. ISBN 0674017218.
  6. ^ "2 MOMS SUING OVER SONS SWITCHED AT BIRTH", The Deseret News, 1995-08-22.
  7. ^ Associated Press. "Damages awarded after babies switched", The Kansas City Star, 1995-10-22.
  8. ^ Joseph Bolivar De Lee (1966). Obstetrics for Nurses. London and Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 433.
  9. ^ Lawrence Joseph Stone and Joseph Church (1973). Childhood and Adolescence: A Psychology of the Growing Person. Random House UK Ltd, 46. ISBN 0394317238.

See also


(Date:4/23/2014)... MD (April 23, 2014) The American Gastroenterological ... the 2014 AGA Research Scholars. The AGA Research ... investigators to develop independent and productive research careers ... Scholar Awards fund an additional year allowing for ... committed to supporting junior faculty who are paving ...
(Date:4/23/2014)... country as wealthy as the United States, it may come ... have access to adequate food due to lack of money ... Recent research at the University of Illinois using data from ... the seniors who are dealing with hunger are also facing ... percent of Americans over age 60 faced the threat of ...
(Date:4/23/2014)... Parents and physicians concerned about an increase in adolescents, ... breathe a sigh of relief. According to a new ... worth of data from states with and without medical ... increased use among adolescents. The study is published online ... Adolescent Health . , "Any time a state ...
(Date:4/23/2014)... Ritalin, may prevent the depletion of self-control, according to ... of the Association for Psychological Science. , Self-control can ... to focus attention on a boring textbook are hard ... for this difficulty: Exerting self-control for a long period ... on subsequent tasks. , "It is as if self-control ...
(Date:4/22/2014)... popular high school sport in the United States with ... researchers in the Center for Injury Research and Policy ... and describe the occurrence and distribution patterns of basketball-related ... athletic training setting among adolescents and teens. , The ... Training , examined data relating to adolescents 13-19 years ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:AGA announces 2014 Class of AGA Research Scholars 2Health News:More Americans in their golden years are going hungry 2Health News:RI Hospital physician: Legalizing medical marijuana doesn't increase use among adolescents 2Health News:ADHD drug may help preserve our self-control resources 2Health News:New study finds 2.5 million basketball injuries to high school athletes in 6 seasons 2Health News:New study finds 2.5 million basketball injuries to high school athletes in 6 seasons 3
... ... EIN News, an online leader in industry news monitoring and press ... H1N1 News Today ( ). , H1N1 ... from governments, news outlets and research centers the world over, searching ...
... ... B. Remo, Chairman/CEO of American Diversified Holdings Corporation ... It includes an investor relations platform, enabling investors to easily ... alerts. The new system can be accessed at: ...
... by reducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions will ... the risk of climate change, especially in low-income countries, ... (Wed., Nov. 25) in the British journal The ... of the papers - Kirk R. Smith, professor of ...
... of normal aging , WEDNESDAY, Nov. 25 (HealthDay News) -- ... -- and sometimes taking your elderly loved one to the ... here,s why: When family members who have not seen each ... often alarmed by the health of their older relatives and ...
... , LONDON, November 25 , ... That 93 Percent of Techies,Think Work has a Negative Impact on our Health ... has an impact on their health,according to a survey[1] conducted by The IT ... is a negative one. , More than half (57 ...
... ... surgeon in Richmond , is launching a new website utilizing the latest internet technology ... a variety of media platforms to create an interactive web experience that’s designed to ... ...
Cached Medicine News:Health News:H1N1 News Today Examines the Swine Flu Virus From a Global Perspective; Read the Latest H1N1 Virus Vaccine & Prevention News From EIN News 2Health News:American Diversified Holdings Corporation Announces New Website 2Health News:Cutting greenhouse pollutants could directly save millions of lives worldwide 2Health News:Cutting greenhouse pollutants could directly save millions of lives worldwide 3Health News:ER Visits for Elderly Rise During Thanksgiving 2Health News:ER Visits for Elderly Rise During Thanksgiving 3Health News:It's Official, Work is Bad for Our Health! 2Health News:Richmond, Virginia Plastic Surgeon Launches State-of-the-Art Breast Surgery Website 2Health News:Richmond, Virginia Plastic Surgeon Launches State-of-the-Art Breast Surgery Website 3Health News:Richmond, Virginia Plastic Surgeon Launches State-of-the-Art Breast Surgery Website 4
Other medicine definitionOther Tags