Navigation Links
Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program


The Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP), is the name of the policy set forth by the United States government to immunize its military and specific civilian personnel with the anthrax vaccine. It began in earnest in 1997 by the Clinton administration. Thereafter it ran into a few FDA and judicial obstacles (mainly concerning the methods and viability of the vaccine manufactured by BioPort, a subsidiary of Emergent BioSolutions Inc.).

Senior Chief Petty Officer John Payhurst administers the first in a series of anthrax vaccinations to one of 6,200 sailors aboard the aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74) on March 17, 1998. Stennis and its embarked Carrier Air Wing 7 are on station in the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Southern Watch, which is the U.S. and coalition enforcement of the no-fly-zone over Southern Iraq. Payhurst, from Virginia Beach, Va., is a Navy hospital corpsmen. The Stennis is homeported in Norfolk, Va. DoD photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Mike Larson, U.S. Navy.

Contents

History

In 1998, the Clinton administration required the inoculation of all military members[2][3], despite the fact that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning letter to the anthrax vaccine manufacturer threatening to revoke its product licenses unless immediate action was taken to correct deficiencies on March 11, 1997.[4] In June 2001, the DOD halted vaccination due to non-FDA approved changes in BioPort's manufacturing process[5].

On June 28, 2002, in the wake of the 2001 anthrax attacks and leading up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, all military personnel were required to get anthrax vaccination[6] (in addition to their other vaccinations of smallpox and other diseases and viruses like Japanese encephalitis, Pneumococcal, Tetanus, among others[7]).

While some military personnel had questions about the safety of the vaccine, it was considered a lawful order at that time, and this made refusing the vaccine at peril of the subordinate, including possible discharge (i.e., losing their job and any benefits depending on the type of discharge). This pressure, at least for the National Guard and Reserve pilots and crewmembers, became a deciding retention factor.[1]

Later that month, the DOD made it policy to include any personnel spending 15 days or more in high anthrax-risk areas, such as the Persian Gulf or the Korean peninsula.[2]

In Dec. of 2003, Judge Emmet G. Sullivan of the United States District Court in Washington ruled that the Department of Defense could not force military personnel to take the vaccine unless through a special order by the president.[3]

In October of 2004, for about 8 days in (October 20-28), anthrax vaccinations were resumed[4], but then an injunction against mandatory vaccination was filed on the basis that the BioPort Anthrax Vaccive Absorbed (AVA) was not proven to work against inhalation anthrax.[5] The ruling held that the mandatory program was illegal. The DoD was now required to either let the individual member choose under an informed consent policy, or allowed the president to bypass this requirement by executive order.[6] For military members who had started the vaccination (which usually takes build-up and booster shots), they tended to continue the vaccination program under informed consent. For those who had a choice, they usually decided against it. [7]. The government stated that they will resume the vaccination program under informed consent in April 2005.

On December 15, 2005, the FDA re-issued a Final Rule & Order[8] on the license status of the anthrax vaccine, clearing the way for mandatory vaccination reinstatement. After reviewing extensive scientific evidence and carefully considering comments from the public, the FDA again determined that the vaccine is licensed for the prevention of anthrax, regardless of the route of exposure.

On Oct. 16, 2006 the military announced intentions to resume vaccinations for select personnel again, but the vaccinations remained voluntary until further guidance by the DoD.[9] The DoD's official resumption status of the program awaited publication of service messages.[10]

On December 13, 2006, a new class-action lawsuit[11], filed on behalf of six unnamed plaintiffs, revived the legal battle over the military’s mandatory anthrax immunization program. According to court documents, the basic premise of the lawsuit is the plaintiffs’ claim that the vaccine is “unapproved for its applied/intended use.” The lawsuit says that “plaintiffs will suffer substantial and irreparable injury if they are forced to take the vaccine,” which the suit says has not been properly approved by the government, despite the Food and Drug Administration issuing its “final rule” on the vaccine on December 15, 2005. The suit also says the Defense Department has failed to follow presidential orders and federal laws that require the government to obtain informed consent before giving an unapproved and experimental vaccine to anyone.

References

  1. ^ "Anthrax Vaccine, GEO's Survey of Guard and Reserve Pilots and Aircrew" United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters. Sept. 2002. GAO-02-445.
  2. ^ Pentagon shifts Anthrax vaccine to civilian uses" James Dao with Judith Miller, June 29, 2002.

    Mirrored site: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9C06E7DF1E3EF93AA15755C0A9649C8B63

  3. ^ "Judge: U.S. Can't Force Vaccines" CBS News, Dec. 22, 2003.
  4. ^ "Pentagon Says 200,000 Who Started Anthrax-Shot Regimen Must Continue" Sandra Jontz, Stars and Stripes European Edition, October 20, 2004
  5. ^ [1] DC District Court Permanent Injunction on Summary Judgment, Oct 27, 2004
  6. ^ "Anthrax Vaccinations Halted Again" United Press International, October 28, 2004.
  7. ^ "Troops divided on getting voluntary vaccine shots." Deborah Funk, July 25, 2005 AF Times
  8. ^ Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration.
    Docket No. 1980N-0208
    Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review; Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; Final Order.
    AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS.
    ACTION: Notice.
  9. ^ Pentagon to Resume Anthrax Inoculations." Lolita C. Baldor, Monday, October 16, 2006.
  10. ^ DoD's official anthrax vaccine immunization program website
  11. ^ "Defense Employees Set For Another Suit to Halt Mandatory Anthrax Shots." Josh White, Wednesday, December 13, 2006; Page A19.

See also

External Links


'"/>


(Date:10/22/2014)... 2014 For Dr. Iris Hunter, a job ... an extension of her life’s mission. Her extensive experience in ... owner of FirstLight HomeCare, make it clear that Hunter’s mission ... that my work makes a difference in the lives of ... so after much research, I felt ready to start on ...
(Date:10/22/2014)... Los Angeles, California (PRWEB) October 22, 2014 ... Recovery 2.0: Move Beyond Addiction and Upgrade Your Life (Paperback; ... the field of Yoga & Recovery. This book is ... and thrive in a life of recovery. , Recovery ... of the 12 Steps; Recovery 2.0 is a guide for ...
(Date:10/22/2014)... Losing Weight Your Body’s Way , In ... in the face, it certainly can be difficult to choose ... an extra favor by doing it the healthy way? Set ... listen to your body, exercise regularly, and choose foods with ... losing weight; you need to exercise more and eat less. ...
(Date:10/22/2014)... By Steven Reinberg ... -- Infants who quickly add weight and length may be ... study suggests. In adults, certain genes have been linked ... promote proportionate gains in fat and lean muscle, the researchers ... be heavier and taller. By ages 2 and 3, however, ...
(Date:10/22/2014)... Oct. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Measures taken by ... in Ebola-ravaged Liberia may have limited the spread of ... report. The Firestone Natural Rubber Co. provides health ... residents of nearby densely populated communities. Between Aug. ... suspected Ebola cases among those 80,000 people. That incidence ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:Dr. Iris Hunter to Host Grand Opening of FirstLight HomeCare Tomorrow 2Health News:Hay House Announces The Official Release of Recovery 2.0: Move Beyond Addiction and Upgrade Your Life 2Health News:Hay House Announces The Official Release of Recovery 2.0: Move Beyond Addiction and Upgrade Your Life 3Health News:ReductionGuruMD Presents Ways to Improve Your Weight Loss Results 2Health News:Tall, Heavy 1-Year-Olds May Be at Risk for Obesity Later, Study Finds 2Health News:Tire Company Sets Standard for Ebola Care in Liberia: CDC 2
... how the risk of death and heart attack can be ... that doubling the usual dose of an anti-clotting drug before ... in which a balloon-tipped catheter is threaded into an artery. ... and unblock the vessel. A small synthetic tube - stent ...
... has been found out that there is no association between ... -- and breast cancer. More than 43,000 women were studied ... had their average daily intake of acrylamide monitored. No evidence ... whose intake was higher was documented. Acrylamide was first discovered ...
... In the 83rd General Session of the International Association ... have presented the results of a study// that says ... bad breath. ,Oral bad odor or so called ... compounds like hydrogen sulfide. The study revealed that volunteers ...
... A new study has found out that depression has to ... anti-depressants // used to treat the same. The study was ... ,At first glance, results showed both the newer and older ... attack within the first month of being prescribed.The older class ...
... drug tezosentan did not improve worsening heart failure or prevent ... hopes. The above fact was found out in the largest ... was conducted to evaluate if something more could be done ... hospital discharge and prevent them from coming back. ,More ...
... help in controlling obesity. A new study coming up in ... that dietary calcium present in the yogurt has got anti-obesity ... and decrease in lipogenesis. ,The study took ... put on balanced deficit diets and the other was put ...
Cached Medicine News:
Other medicine definitionOther Tags