Navigation Links
Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program

The Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP), is the name of the policy set forth by the United States government to immunize its military and specific civilian personnel with the anthrax vaccine. It began in earnest in 1997 by the Clinton administration. Thereafter it ran into a few FDA and judicial obstacles (mainly concerning the methods and viability of the vaccine manufactured by BioPort, a subsidiary of Emergent BioSolutions Inc.).

Senior Chief Petty Officer John Payhurst administers the first in a series of anthrax vaccinations to one of 6,200 sailors aboard the aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74) on March 17, 1998. Stennis and its embarked Carrier Air Wing 7 are on station in the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Southern Watch, which is the U.S. and coalition enforcement of the no-fly-zone over Southern Iraq. Payhurst, from Virginia Beach, Va., is a Navy hospital corpsmen. The Stennis is homeported in Norfolk, Va. DoD photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Mike Larson, U.S. Navy.



In 1998, the Clinton administration required the inoculation of all military members[2][3], despite the fact that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning letter to the anthrax vaccine manufacturer threatening to revoke its product licenses unless immediate action was taken to correct deficiencies on March 11, 1997.[4] In June 2001, the DOD halted vaccination due to non-FDA approved changes in BioPort's manufacturing process[5].

On June 28, 2002, in the wake of the 2001 anthrax attacks and leading up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, all military personnel were required to get anthrax vaccination[6] (in addition to their other vaccinations of smallpox and other diseases and viruses like Japanese encephalitis, Pneumococcal, Tetanus, among others[7]).

While some military personnel had questions about the safety of the vaccine, it was considered a lawful order at that time, and this made refusing the vaccine at peril of the subordinate, including possible discharge (i.e., losing their job and any benefits depending on the type of discharge). This pressure, at least for the National Guard and Reserve pilots and crewmembers, became a deciding retention factor.[1]

Later that month, the DOD made it policy to include any personnel spending 15 days or more in high anthrax-risk areas, such as the Persian Gulf or the Korean peninsula.[2]

In Dec. of 2003, Judge Emmet G. Sullivan of the United States District Court in Washington ruled that the Department of Defense could not force military personnel to take the vaccine unless through a special order by the president.[3]

In October of 2004, for about 8 days in (October 20-28), anthrax vaccinations were resumed[4], but then an injunction against mandatory vaccination was filed on the basis that the BioPort Anthrax Vaccive Absorbed (AVA) was not proven to work against inhalation anthrax.[5] The ruling held that the mandatory program was illegal. The DoD was now required to either let the individual member choose under an informed consent policy, or allowed the president to bypass this requirement by executive order.[6] For military members who had started the vaccination (which usually takes build-up and booster shots), they tended to continue the vaccination program under informed consent. For those who had a choice, they usually decided against it. [7]. The government stated that they will resume the vaccination program under informed consent in April 2005.

On December 15, 2005, the FDA re-issued a Final Rule & Order[8] on the license status of the anthrax vaccine, clearing the way for mandatory vaccination reinstatement. After reviewing extensive scientific evidence and carefully considering comments from the public, the FDA again determined that the vaccine is licensed for the prevention of anthrax, regardless of the route of exposure.

On Oct. 16, 2006 the military announced intentions to resume vaccinations for select personnel again, but the vaccinations remained voluntary until further guidance by the DoD.[9] The DoD's official resumption status of the program awaited publication of service messages.[10]

On December 13, 2006, a new class-action lawsuit[11], filed on behalf of six unnamed plaintiffs, revived the legal battle over the military’s mandatory anthrax immunization program. According to court documents, the basic premise of the lawsuit is the plaintiffs’ claim that the vaccine is “unapproved for its applied/intended use.” The lawsuit says that “plaintiffs will suffer substantial and irreparable injury if they are forced to take the vaccine,” which the suit says has not been properly approved by the government, despite the Food and Drug Administration issuing its “final rule” on the vaccine on December 15, 2005. The suit also says the Defense Department has failed to follow presidential orders and federal laws that require the government to obtain informed consent before giving an unapproved and experimental vaccine to anyone.


  1. ^ "Anthrax Vaccine, GEO's Survey of Guard and Reserve Pilots and Aircrew" United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters. Sept. 2002. GAO-02-445.
  2. ^ Pentagon shifts Anthrax vaccine to civilian uses" James Dao with Judith Miller, June 29, 2002.

    Mirrored site:

  3. ^ "Judge: U.S. Can't Force Vaccines" CBS News, Dec. 22, 2003.
  4. ^ "Pentagon Says 200,000 Who Started Anthrax-Shot Regimen Must Continue" Sandra Jontz, Stars and Stripes European Edition, October 20, 2004
  5. ^ [1] DC District Court Permanent Injunction on Summary Judgment, Oct 27, 2004
  6. ^ "Anthrax Vaccinations Halted Again" United Press International, October 28, 2004.
  7. ^ "Troops divided on getting voluntary vaccine shots." Deborah Funk, July 25, 2005 AF Times
  8. ^ Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration.
    Docket No. 1980N-0208
    Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review; Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; Final Order.
    AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS.
    ACTION: Notice.
  9. ^ Pentagon to Resume Anthrax Inoculations." Lolita C. Baldor, Monday, October 16, 2006.
  10. ^ DoD's official anthrax vaccine immunization program website
  11. ^ "Defense Employees Set For Another Suit to Halt Mandatory Anthrax Shots." Josh White, Wednesday, December 13, 2006; Page A19.

See also

External Links


(Date:7/2/2015)... ... ... With summer in full swing, Americans are flocking to Canada’s many lakes to reel in ... in the world, and it’s easy to understand why. From the Pacific Northwest Coast of ... Recreational fishing is a huge industry, and Americans make up the vast majority of anglers ...
(Date:7/2/2015)... ... 02, 2015 , ... “ LIFX ” was featured on NewsWatch as part ... to consumers. Amanda Forstrom, a technology expert and special reporter for NewsWatch, conducted the ... light bulbs on the market. , According to the U.S. Department of Energy, it’s ...
(Date:7/2/2015)... PEACHTREE CITY, GA (PRWEB) , ... July 02, ... ... or field sporting the newest shades of the SIGVARIS PERFORMANCE SOCKS. Since the ... physicians, fitness experts and athletic trainers. Their significant popularity has inspired four new, ...
(Date:7/2/2015)... ... 02, 2015 , ... Six months ahead of his 80th birthday, Don Stevenson ... and money for the Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA). Stevenson began the walk in ... D.C. by mid-September. He left Glasgow, Mont. yesterday morning and is making his way ...
(Date:7/2/2015)... CA (PRWEB) , ... July 02, 2015 , ... ... a passion for social fitness. Built to function as a lifestyle community, Active Bunch ... them the opportunity to network, meet, and participate in discussions or group events. ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:The Most Versatile Smart Light Bulbs were featured on NewsWatch Television 2Health News:SIGVARIS is Sporting Four Brand New Colors in the Popular PERFORMANCE SOCK Product Line 2Health News:79-Year-old ‘Pacing Parson’ Passes 1,000-Mile Mark in Cross-Country Walk for Pulmonary Hypertension Association 2Health News:79-Year-old ‘Pacing Parson’ Passes 1,000-Mile Mark in Cross-Country Walk for Pulmonary Hypertension Association 3Health Launches as a Social Community for People with Active Lifestyles 2
... Feb. 17 Cardinal Health today,announced it has reached ... amended consent decree regarding the company,s infusion pump products. ... under a consent decree since February 2007,for its Alaris(R) ... new,quality system on April 2, 2008. Under the amended ...
... hearing today in Superior Court in Camden, N.J., the Honorable ... Virtua to stop its Top Doc advertising campaign. The restraining ... response to a complaint by Cooper University Hospital. In entering ... that state it has the most Top Docs in South ...
... study shows , , TUESDAY, Feb. 17 (HealthDay News) -- ... people with this disease to also develop neurological, cognitive and ... of the liver, which kills 25,000 people in Unites States ... C. , The disorder occurs when the liver is ...
... to the TV sitcom where the wife experiencing strong labor ... women rarely give birth alone. There are typically doctors, nurses ... relatives and friends. Midwives often are called on to help ... around for millennia, possibly dating as far back as 5 ...
... to discuss the current debate on United States, embryonic ... fellows Neal Lane and Kirstin Matthews released policy recommendations ... recommend that stem cell research be allowed to expand ... a federal stem cell policy be developed. They encourage ...
... WellPoint, Inc.,(NYSE: WLP ) today announced that ... on Tuesday, February 24, 2009. The meeting will be ... of WellPoint, Inc.,and will feature several presentations by the ... The event is scheduled to begin at 8:00 a.m. ...
Cached Medicine News:Health News:Cardinal Health, FDA Amend Infusion Pump Consent Decree 2Health News:Virtua Permitted to Continue Top Docs Ad Campaign 2Health News:Anthropologist's studies of childbirth bring new focus on women in evolution 2Health News:Anthropologist's studies of childbirth bring new focus on women in evolution 3Health News:WellPoint Announces Webcast of its Conference with Investment Community 2
Other medicine definitionOther Tags