Navigation Links
Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program

The Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP), is the name of the policy set forth by the United States government to immunize its military and specific civilian personnel with the anthrax vaccine. It began in earnest in 1997 by the Clinton administration. Thereafter it ran into a few FDA and judicial obstacles (mainly concerning the methods and viability of the vaccine manufactured by BioPort, a subsidiary of Emergent BioSolutions Inc.).

Senior Chief Petty Officer John Payhurst administers the first in a series of anthrax vaccinations to one of 6,200 sailors aboard the aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74) on March 17, 1998. Stennis and its embarked Carrier Air Wing 7 are on station in the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Southern Watch, which is the U.S. and coalition enforcement of the no-fly-zone over Southern Iraq. Payhurst, from Virginia Beach, Va., is a Navy hospital corpsmen. The Stennis is homeported in Norfolk, Va. DoD photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Mike Larson, U.S. Navy.



In 1998, the Clinton administration required the inoculation of all military members[2][3], despite the fact that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning letter to the anthrax vaccine manufacturer threatening to revoke its product licenses unless immediate action was taken to correct deficiencies on March 11, 1997.[4] In June 2001, the DOD halted vaccination due to non-FDA approved changes in BioPort's manufacturing process[5].

On June 28, 2002, in the wake of the 2001 anthrax attacks and leading up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, all military personnel were required to get anthrax vaccination[6] (in addition to their other vaccinations of smallpox and other diseases and viruses like Japanese encephalitis, Pneumococcal, Tetanus, among others[7]).

While some military personnel had questions about the safety of the vaccine, it was considered a lawful order at that time, and this made refusing the vaccine at peril of the subordinate, including possible discharge (i.e., losing their job and any benefits depending on the type of discharge). This pressure, at least for the National Guard and Reserve pilots and crewmembers, became a deciding retention factor.[1]

Later that month, the DOD made it policy to include any personnel spending 15 days or more in high anthrax-risk areas, such as the Persian Gulf or the Korean peninsula.[2]

In Dec. of 2003, Judge Emmet G. Sullivan of the United States District Court in Washington ruled that the Department of Defense could not force military personnel to take the vaccine unless through a special order by the president.[3]

In October of 2004, for about 8 days in (October 20-28), anthrax vaccinations were resumed[4], but then an injunction against mandatory vaccination was filed on the basis that the BioPort Anthrax Vaccive Absorbed (AVA) was not proven to work against inhalation anthrax.[5] The ruling held that the mandatory program was illegal. The DoD was now required to either let the individual member choose under an informed consent policy, or allowed the president to bypass this requirement by executive order.[6] For military members who had started the vaccination (which usually takes build-up and booster shots), they tended to continue the vaccination program under informed consent. For those who had a choice, they usually decided against it. [7]. The government stated that they will resume the vaccination program under informed consent in April 2005.

On December 15, 2005, the FDA re-issued a Final Rule & Order[8] on the license status of the anthrax vaccine, clearing the way for mandatory vaccination reinstatement. After reviewing extensive scientific evidence and carefully considering comments from the public, the FDA again determined that the vaccine is licensed for the prevention of anthrax, regardless of the route of exposure.

On Oct. 16, 2006 the military announced intentions to resume vaccinations for select personnel again, but the vaccinations remained voluntary until further guidance by the DoD.[9] The DoD's official resumption status of the program awaited publication of service messages.[10]

On December 13, 2006, a new class-action lawsuit[11], filed on behalf of six unnamed plaintiffs, revived the legal battle over the military’s mandatory anthrax immunization program. According to court documents, the basic premise of the lawsuit is the plaintiffs’ claim that the vaccine is “unapproved for its applied/intended use.” The lawsuit says that “plaintiffs will suffer substantial and irreparable injury if they are forced to take the vaccine,” which the suit says has not been properly approved by the government, despite the Food and Drug Administration issuing its “final rule” on the vaccine on December 15, 2005. The suit also says the Defense Department has failed to follow presidential orders and federal laws that require the government to obtain informed consent before giving an unapproved and experimental vaccine to anyone.


  1. ^ "Anthrax Vaccine, GEO's Survey of Guard and Reserve Pilots and Aircrew" United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters. Sept. 2002. GAO-02-445.
  2. ^ Pentagon shifts Anthrax vaccine to civilian uses" James Dao with Judith Miller, June 29, 2002.

    Mirrored site:

  3. ^ "Judge: U.S. Can't Force Vaccines" CBS News, Dec. 22, 2003.
  4. ^ "Pentagon Says 200,000 Who Started Anthrax-Shot Regimen Must Continue" Sandra Jontz, Stars and Stripes European Edition, October 20, 2004
  5. ^ [1] DC District Court Permanent Injunction on Summary Judgment, Oct 27, 2004
  6. ^ "Anthrax Vaccinations Halted Again" United Press International, October 28, 2004.
  7. ^ "Troops divided on getting voluntary vaccine shots." Deborah Funk, July 25, 2005 AF Times
  8. ^ Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration.
    Docket No. 1980N-0208
    Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review; Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; Final Order.
    AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS.
    ACTION: Notice.
  9. ^ Pentagon to Resume Anthrax Inoculations." Lolita C. Baldor, Monday, October 16, 2006.
  10. ^ DoD's official anthrax vaccine immunization program website
  11. ^ "Defense Employees Set For Another Suit to Halt Mandatory Anthrax Shots." Josh White, Wednesday, December 13, 2006; Page A19.

See also

External Links


(Date:11/24/2014)... Dallas, TX (PRWEB) November 24, 2014 ... ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and is one of the ... genetically vulnerable to creating some types of melanoma, and ... but this also sometimes gives their malignancies a exclusive ... on PARP to fix their DNA and allow them ...
(Date:11/24/2014)... 2014 The typical American diet includes ... ingredients. Consistently consuming a diet high in calories and ... excess fat that typically accumulate around the internal organs ... ugly head in the form of love handles, beer ... the decision to rid themselves of the burden of ...
(Date:11/24/2014)... "My friend was killed when a ... the street in his motorized wheelchair," said an inventor ... came up with this idea so that people in ... developed the Safety Lites to make a wheelchair highly ... device ensures that motorists can see the wheelchair. This ...
(Date:11/23/2014)... has recently announced that ... Nov. 28, 2014. The special offer will provide ladies many ... one of the world’s largest women’s dresses retailers, and its ... can enjoy great discounts on that day: Everything at ... (for orders above $89). , People can use the following ...
(Date:11/23/2014)... (PRWEB) November 23, 2014, a ... emergency doors. Moreover, all the new products are available ... The marketing manager is proud of the new emergency ... reset automatically. And customers can choose from several colors. ... Buying high quality emergency door release is not as ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:Olaparib Industry (CAS 763113-22-0) 2009-2019 Global and China Research Reports is Now Available at 2Health News:Olaparib Industry (CAS 763113-22-0) 2009-2019 Global and China Research Reports is Now Available at 3Health News:Olaparib Industry (CAS 763113-22-0) 2009-2019 Global and China Research Reports is Now Available at 4Health News:Ketogenic Diet is the Perfect Solution for Diet Doc Patients Who Want to Learn How to Lose Weight over the Holidays 2Health News:Ketogenic Diet is the Perfect Solution for Diet Doc Patients Who Want to Learn How to Lose Weight over the Holidays 3Health News:Ketogenic Diet is the Perfect Solution for Diet Doc Patients Who Want to Learn How to Lose Weight over the Holidays 4Health Special Friday Shoes Sales Online Now 2
... red wine, grapes and other fruits, and similar in structure ... fat cells to develop, opening a door to a potential ... Kee-Hong Kim, an assistant professor of food science, and ... in this week,s issue of the Journal of Biological ...
... WEDNESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Large amounts of ... doesn,t result in post-traumatic stress disorder -- boosts inflammation ... The findings are important because it,s known that ... to fare worse, according to the researchers at the ...
... Steven Reinberg HealthDay Reporter , WEDNESDAY, April ... to lengthen the lives of patients with a certain ... small phase 2 trial. The drug, belagenpumatucel-L (Lucanix), ... lung cancer and increased the five-year survival rate among ...
... Testing patients with non-small cell lung cancer for both ... may help to predict response to treatment with antifolates, according ... the AACR Annual Meeting 2012, held here March 31 - ... have KRAS gene mutations have a worse prognosis and do ...
... CHICAGO, IL (April 4, 2012)When combined with other treatments, ... growth of cancer cellshas been shown to extend survival ... Unfortunately, about 40 percent of colorectal cancer patientsspecifically ... called KRASdo not respond to the drug. Researchers ...
... To help foster the next generation of global health ... National Institutes of Health are building a network of ... and scientists with a significant mentored research experience in ... will be awarded over the next five years to ...
Cached Medicine News:Health News:Red wine, fruit compound could help block fat cell formation 2Health News:Witnessing, Experiencing Traumatic Events May Worsen Heart Disease 2Health News:Early Study Finds Some Promise for Lung Cancer Vaccine 2Health News:KRAS gene mutation and amplification status affects sensitivity to antifolate therapy 2Health News:Researchers uncover a viable way for colorectal cancer patients to overcome drug resistance 2Health News:NIH awards $20 million over 5 years to train next generation of global health researchers 2Health News:NIH awards $20 million over 5 years to train next generation of global health researchers 3
Other medicine definitionOther Tags