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FERMENTATION BASICS

>, an open system is set up. Sterile nutrient solution is added to the bioreactor continuously and an equivalent amount of converted nutrient solution with microorganisms is simultaneously taken out of the system. In the case of a homogeneously mixed bioreactor we refer to a chemostat or a turbidistat. In the chemostat in the steady state, cell growth is controlled by adjusting the concentration of one substrate. In the turbidistat, cell growth is kept constant by using turbidity to monitor the biomass concentration and the rate of feed of nutrient solution is appropriately adjusted.


2.4. Nutrient requirements

All microorganisms need for their microbial activity the presence of several nutrients.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are capable of being used by all microorganisms, although in no case is there an absolute requirement for this group of organic compounds. Glucose is the most readily metabolized sugar. Most fungi can use disaccharides.

Lipides
Microbial requirements for steroids, and long-chain fatty acids can be summarized as follows. Long-chain fatty acids like linoleic acid and oleic acid are required for bacteria and fungi. Generally, steroids, other than cholesterol, are not required or utilized by microorganisms. In all fungi, and including yeast, ergosterol is a nutritional requirement.

Purines and pyrimidines
It is generally only in bacteria that cases of purine and pyrimidine metabolism have been reported. Algae do not utilize these compounds at all.

Vitamins and growth factors
There is considerable species variation in the requirements of vitamins and related factors by other microorganisms. Generally, vitamins A, C
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