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FERMENTATION BASICS

nd excretion of metabolic products, the growth rate remains constant during the log phase. Growth rate is independent of substrate concentration as long as excess substrate is present.

Stationary phase
As soon as the substrate is metabolized or toxic substances have been formed, growth slows down or is completely stopped. The biomass increases only gradually or remains constant during this stationary phase, although the composition of the cells may change. Due to lysis, new substrates are released which then may serve as energy sources for the slow growth of survivors. The various metabolites formed in the stationary phase are often of great biotechnological interest.

Death phase
In this phase the energy reserves of the cells are exhausted. A straight line may be obtained when a semilogarithmic plot is made of survivors versus time, indicating that the cells are dying at an exponential rate. The length of time between the stationary phase and the death phase is dependent on the microorganism and the process used. The fermentation is usually interrupted at the end of the log phase or before the death phase begins.

FED BATCH FERMENTATION
In the conventional batch process just described, all of the substrate is added at the beginning of the fermentation. An enhancement of the closed batch process is the fedbatch fermentation. In the fed-batch process, substrate is added in increments as the fermentation progresses. In the fed-batch method the critical elements of the nutrient solution are added in small concentrations at the beginning of the fermentation and these substances continue to be added in small doses during the production phase.

CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION
In continuous fermentation'"/>

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