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FERMENTATION BASICS

is critical because upto 95% of the microorganisms are generally killed during freezing and subsequent thawing. The best method of strain preservation is Lyophilization (freeze-drying).

STAGE 2: GROWTH OF INOCULUM
The preserved culture is initially revived by growth in a erlenmeyer flask on a biological shaker or on a solid medium (if spore formation is needed). In order to obtain sufficient inoculum for small fermentors, a second series of shake cultures is usually made in more flasks. Out from lyophilized strains the growth of inoculum takes around 4-10 days, out from frozen cultures the growth of inoculum takes 4-48 hours for bacteria and 1-7 days for fungi. Finally out of refrigerated cultures the growth of inoculum takes 4-24 hours for bacteria and 1-5 days for fungi.

STAGE 3: FERMENTOR CULTURE
The nutrient media for production must be optimized not only in the ingredients used but also how the medium is prepared and sterilized, pH value before and after sterilization. The most important parameters during the fermentation are:
* Temperature
* Aeration
* Stirring


2.8. Process management
The process management is concerned with:
* Setting up the initial process conditions
* Monitoring to ascertain whether the process is following the required course
* Facilitating manual adjustments to the process variables
* Deciding when to terminate the process and/or to transfer or harvest the product
* Calculating the mass and thermal balances, rates of reaction, kinetics and yields (see Table 4)
* Providing information for statistical records on consistency and for archival purposes

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