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FERMENTATION BASICS

catabolized to provide energy for cell maintenance, all the enthalpy associated with the oxidation of the substrate is released as heat. If a biochemical product is formed, the heat evolved lies between the heat released during maintenance and that evolved during active growth. The amount of heat evolved is related to the stoichiometry for growth and product formation, whereas the rate of heat evolution is related to the rate of microbial activity.


2.6. Sterilization
cultures at all stages, from the preliminary culture to the fermentor. A fermentor can be sterilized either by destroying the microorganisms with some lethal agent such as heat, radiation, or a chemical, or by removing the viable microorganisms by a physical procedure such as filtration.

During fermentation the following points must be observed to ensure sterility:
sterility of the culture media
sterility of incoming and outgoing air
appropriate construction of the bioreactor for sterilization and for prevention of contamination during fermentation

STERILIZATION OF THE CULTURE MEDIA
Nutrient media as initially prepared contain a variety of different vegetative cells and spores, derived from the constituents of the culture medium, the water and the vessel. These must be eliminated by a suitable means before inoculation. A number of means are available for sterilization, but in practice heat is the most often used mechanism.

A number of factors influence the success of heat sterilization: the number and type of microorganisms present, the composition of the culture medium, the pH value, and the size of the suspended particles. Vegetative cells are rapidly eliminated at relatively low temperatures such as 60 degrees Celcius for 5-10 minutes, but for destruction
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