Navigation Links
Neural prosthesis restores behavior after brain injury
Date:12/9/2013

Scientists from Case Western Reserve University and University of Kansas Medical Center have restored behaviorin this case, the ability to reach through a narrow opening and grasp foodusing a neural prosthesis in a rat model of brain injury.

Ultimately, the team hopes to develop a device that rapidly and substantially improves function after brain injury in humans. There is no such commercial treatment for the 1.5 million Americans, including soldiers in Afghanistan and Iraq, who suffer traumatic brain injuries (TBI), or the nearly 800,000 stroke victims who suffer weakness or paralysis in the United States, annually.

The prosthesis, called a brain-machine-brain interface, is a closed-loop microelectronic system. It records signals from one part of the brain, processes them in real time, and then bridges the injury by stimulating a second part of the brain that had lost connectivity.

Their work is published online this week in the science journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"If you use the device to couple activity from one part of the brain to another, is it possible to induce recovery from TBI? That's the core of this investigation," said Pedram Mohseni, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at Case Western Reserve, who built the brain prosthesis.

"We found that, yes, it is possible to use a closed-loop neural prosthesis to facilitate repair of a brain injury," he said.

The researchers tested the prosthesis in a rat model of brain injury in the laboratory of Randolph J. Nudo, professor of molecular and integrative physiology at the University of Kansas. Nudo mapped the rat's brain and developed the model in which anterior and posterior parts of the brain that control the rat's forelimbs are disconnected.

Atop each animal's head, the brain-machine-brain interface is a microchip on a circuit board smaller than a quarter connected to microelectrodes implanted in the two brain regions.

The device amplifies signals, which are called neural action potentials and produced by the neurons in the anterior of the brain. An algorithm separates these signals, recorded as brain spike activity, from noise and other artifacts. With each spike detected, the microchip sends a pulse of electric current to stimulate neurons in the posterior part of the brain, artificially connecting the two brain regions.

Two weeks after the prosthesis had been implanted and run continuously, the rat models using the full closed-loop system had recovered nearly all function lost due to injury, successfully retrieving a food pellet close to 70 percent of the time, or as well as normal, uninjured rats. Rat models that received random stimuli from the device retrieved less than half the pellets and those that received no stimuli retrieved about a quarter of them.

"A question still to be answered is must the implant be left in place for life?" Mohseni said. "Or can it be removed after two months or six months, if and when new connections have been formed in the brain?"

Brain studies have shown that, during periods of growth, neurons that regularly communicate with each other develop and solidify connections.

Mohseni and Nudo said they need more systematic studies to determine what happens in the brain that leads to restoration of function. They also want to determine if there is an optimal time window after injury in which they must implant the device in order to restore function.


'/>"/>

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
kevin.mayhood@case.edu
216-368-4442
Case Western Reserve University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology technology :

1. Neuralstem ALS Stem Cell Trial Featured on Fox Atlanta
2. Neuralstem President and CEO to Update Ongoing ALS and NSI-189/Major Depressive Disorder Trials at 2012 Biotech Showcase
3. Neuralstem President and CEO to Present at BIO CEO & Investor Conference 2012
4. Neuralstem Announces Closing of $5.2-Million Registered Direct Offering
5. Fourteenth Patient Dosed in Neuralstem ALS Stem Cell Trial
6. Neuralstem CEO to Present at the World Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Congress in London
7. Triangles guide the way for live neural circuits in a dish
8. PhoenixSongs Biologicals, Inc. Announces Enhanced Neural Lineage-specific Cell Culture Media Products Release
9. Neuralstem Receives Notice Of Issuance For Patent Covering Human Neural Cell Transplantation For Neurodegenerative Conditions
10. Neuralstem President And CEO To Present At The 2012 Rodman & Renshaw Annual Healthcare Conference
11. Neuralstem Cells Induce Significant Functional Improvement In Permanent Rat Spinal Cord Injury, Cell Study Reports
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/19/2017)... ... April 19, 2017 , ... ... (C. diff) infections through education and advocacy. Founded in 2010 in memory ... C. diff infection, the foundation has become the most-consulted source for patient-focused information ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... April 19, 2017  As a Bronze ... Heroin Summit ,  Proove┬« Biosciences, Inc. announces ... environmental, and lifestyle factors to accurately predict prescription ... of Southern California (USC), the Interventional Pain Institute ... publish results showing that Proove Opioid Risk┬« accurately ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... 19, 2017   Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc ... Procalcitonin MOnitoring SEpsis (MOSES) Study have been published ... Critical Care Medicine . Researchers from the study, ... Patients: Results From the Multicenter Procalcitonin MOnitoring SEpsis ... PCT (procalcitonin) assay to assess risk for 28 ...
(Date:4/18/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... April 18, 2017 , ... For a ... Associates, co-members in the VaxCorps vaccine consortium, were named one of the top two ... since the inception of this category; winning the award four times previously, and first ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:4/11/2017)... PALM BEACH GARDENS, Fla. , April 11, ... biometric identity management and secure authentication solutions, today ... million contract by Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity ... technologies for IARPA,s Thor program. "Innovation ... the onset and IARPA,s Thor program will allow ...
(Date:4/5/2017)... 5, 2017  The Allen Institute for Cell Science ... a one-of-a-kind portal and dynamic digital window into the ... the first application of deep learning to create predictive ... lines and a growing suite of powerful tools. The ... and future publicly available resources created and shared by ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... LOS ANGELES , March 30, 2017  On ... Hack the Genome hackathon at ... This exciting two-day competition will focus on developing health ... experience. Hack the Genome is ... has been tremendous. The world,s largest companies in the ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):