Navigation Links
Neural prosthesis restores behavior after brain injury
Date:12/9/2013

Scientists from Case Western Reserve University and University of Kansas Medical Center have restored behaviorin this case, the ability to reach through a narrow opening and grasp foodusing a neural prosthesis in a rat model of brain injury.

Ultimately, the team hopes to develop a device that rapidly and substantially improves function after brain injury in humans. There is no such commercial treatment for the 1.5 million Americans, including soldiers in Afghanistan and Iraq, who suffer traumatic brain injuries (TBI), or the nearly 800,000 stroke victims who suffer weakness or paralysis in the United States, annually.

The prosthesis, called a brain-machine-brain interface, is a closed-loop microelectronic system. It records signals from one part of the brain, processes them in real time, and then bridges the injury by stimulating a second part of the brain that had lost connectivity.

Their work is published online this week in the science journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"If you use the device to couple activity from one part of the brain to another, is it possible to induce recovery from TBI? That's the core of this investigation," said Pedram Mohseni, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at Case Western Reserve, who built the brain prosthesis.

"We found that, yes, it is possible to use a closed-loop neural prosthesis to facilitate repair of a brain injury," he said.

The researchers tested the prosthesis in a rat model of brain injury in the laboratory of Randolph J. Nudo, professor of molecular and integrative physiology at the University of Kansas. Nudo mapped the rat's brain and developed the model in which anterior and posterior parts of the brain that control the rat's forelimbs are disconnected.

Atop each animal's head, the brain-machine-brain interface is a microchip on a circuit board smaller than a quarter connected to microelectrodes implanted in the two brain regions.

The device amplifies signals, which are called neural action potentials and produced by the neurons in the anterior of the brain. An algorithm separates these signals, recorded as brain spike activity, from noise and other artifacts. With each spike detected, the microchip sends a pulse of electric current to stimulate neurons in the posterior part of the brain, artificially connecting the two brain regions.

Two weeks after the prosthesis had been implanted and run continuously, the rat models using the full closed-loop system had recovered nearly all function lost due to injury, successfully retrieving a food pellet close to 70 percent of the time, or as well as normal, uninjured rats. Rat models that received random stimuli from the device retrieved less than half the pellets and those that received no stimuli retrieved about a quarter of them.

"A question still to be answered is must the implant be left in place for life?" Mohseni said. "Or can it be removed after two months or six months, if and when new connections have been formed in the brain?"

Brain studies have shown that, during periods of growth, neurons that regularly communicate with each other develop and solidify connections.

Mohseni and Nudo said they need more systematic studies to determine what happens in the brain that leads to restoration of function. They also want to determine if there is an optimal time window after injury in which they must implant the device in order to restore function.


'/>"/>

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
kevin.mayhood@case.edu
216-368-4442
Case Western Reserve University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology technology :

1. Neuralstem ALS Stem Cell Trial Featured on Fox Atlanta
2. Neuralstem President and CEO to Update Ongoing ALS and NSI-189/Major Depressive Disorder Trials at 2012 Biotech Showcase
3. Neuralstem President and CEO to Present at BIO CEO & Investor Conference 2012
4. Neuralstem Announces Closing of $5.2-Million Registered Direct Offering
5. Fourteenth Patient Dosed in Neuralstem ALS Stem Cell Trial
6. Neuralstem CEO to Present at the World Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Congress in London
7. Triangles guide the way for live neural circuits in a dish
8. PhoenixSongs Biologicals, Inc. Announces Enhanced Neural Lineage-specific Cell Culture Media Products Release
9. Neuralstem Receives Notice Of Issuance For Patent Covering Human Neural Cell Transplantation For Neurodegenerative Conditions
10. Neuralstem President And CEO To Present At The 2012 Rodman & Renshaw Annual Healthcare Conference
11. Neuralstem Cells Induce Significant Functional Improvement In Permanent Rat Spinal Cord Injury, Cell Study Reports
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... 2017 , ... They call it the “hairy ball.” It’s ... of a system of linkages and connections so complex and dense that “it ... science at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) and director of the university’s bioinformatics and ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... AMRI, a ... biotechnology industries to improve patient outcomes and quality of life, will now be ... are being attributed to new regulatory requirements for all new drug products, including ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... Alto, CA, USA (PRWEB) , ... October 11, 2017 , ... ... set to take place on 7th and 8th June 2018 in San Francisco, CA. ... policy influencers as well as several distinguished CEOs, board directors and government officials from ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... 11, 2017 , ... A new study published in Fertility ... fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) transfer cycles. The multi-center matched cohort ... After comparing the results from the fresh and frozen transfer cohorts, the authors ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:10/4/2017)... 2017  GCE Solutions, a global clinical research organization (CRO), announces ... solution on October 4, 2017. Shadow is designed to assist medical ... policy 0070 of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in meeting the ... ... ...
(Date:6/23/2017)... ARMONK, N.Y. and ITHACA, N.Y. ... IBM ) and Cornell University, a leader in dairy ... combined with bioinformatics designed to help reduce the chances ... breaches. With the onset of this dairy project, Cornell ... the Consortium for Sequencing the Food Supply Chain, a ...
(Date:5/6/2017)... , May 5, 2017 RAM ... announced a new breakthrough in biometric authentication based ... quantum mechanical properties to perform biometric authentication. These new ... semiconductor material created by Ram Group and its ... entertainment, transportation, supply chains and security. Ram Group ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):