Carbon nanotubes are of keen interest in nanotechnology research, especially for making ultrastrong fibers and other structures. Nanotubes made from other materials are used for transport in biochemical applications, but are typically fragile and usually collapse within a few hours. The NIST team developed processes for extending the shelf life of polymer nanotubes--considered essential for commercial applications--and forming sturdy nanotube network structures.
First the researchers made tiny, fluid-filled spherical containers with bi-layer membranes consisting of polymers with one end that likes water and one end that does not. (These fluid-filled containers are a spin-off of liposomes, artificial cells with fatty membranes used in cosmetics and for drug delivery.) The researchers made the membranes stretchy by adding a soap-like fluid to change the polymer membranes' mechanical properties. Then they used "optical tweezers" (highly focused infrared lasers) or tiny droppers called micropipettes to pull on the elastic membranes to form long, double-walled tubes that are less than 100 nanometers in diameter. (View a movie of this process at: http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/images/Polymer_Nanotu
Source:National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)