Navigation Links
Researchers identify target for cancer drugs

For nearly a decade, scientists have been trying to fully understand a particular communication pathway inside of cells that contributes to many malignant brain and prostate cancers. While scientists have identified elements of this pathway, other key components have remained a mystery. Researchers at Whitehead Institute now have discovered a missing puzzle piece, a finding that may present drug makers with a significant new cancer target.

"We believe that we have identified a component that researchers have been looking for since 1996," says Whitehead Associate Member David Sabatini, who is also an Assistant Professor of Biology at MIT.

At the heart of this new research is a protein called Akt, an important player in the regulation of cell division and survival. Abnormally high activation of Akt has long been implicated in a variety of cancers. If Akt travels to the cell membrane, it is switched on and promotes cell division, often contributing to tumor growth as a result. However, as long as it stays within the cell cytoplasm, it remains relatively inactive. That's because the tumor-suppressor protein PTEN keeps Akt in check by destroying lipids in the cell membrane that normally draw Akt to the surface. In a sense, PTEN keeps a leash on Akt and thus suppresses cell division.

But when PTEN is mutated and unable to function, Akt breaks free. It makes its way to the cell membrane where other proteins activate it, thereby enabling Akt to contribute to tumor growth. "When a cell loses PTEN through, say, a mutation, Akt goes gangbusters," says Sabatini.

The exact means by which Akt switches on when it reaches the cell membrane has only been partially understood. As a result, researchers have lacked a clear idea about how to prevent the process. However, in the February 18 issue of the journal Science, researchers from the Sabatini lab report on discovering an important missing piece of the activation process.

This missing componen t, a molecule called mTOR, is a protein that influences a cell's ability to expand in size. mTOR has been widely studied as the target for the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin (in fact, mTOR is an acronym for "mammalian target of rapamycin"). In July of 2004, Dos Sarbassov, a scientist in Sabatini's lab, discovered a new protein that mTOR interacts with called rictor, but he wasn't yet sure of what these two proteins do together. In this latest paper, Sarbassov reports that when mTOR and rictor bind and form a complex, they help activate Akt by adding a phosphate group to a sequence of its amino acids (a process called "phosphorylation").

This process occurs not only in human cells but in other organisms such as the fruit fly. Finding this complex conserved in species as diverse as flies and humans supports the claim that the mTOR/rictor complex is indeed a missing piece of the puzzle.

According to Sarbassov, "If we find a molecule that can block the mTOR/rictor complex, then we may be able to prevent Akt from becoming active and contributing to tumor formation."


'"/>

Source:Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research


Related biology news :

1. Researchers discover way to make cells in the eye sensitive to light
2. Researchers find how protein allows insects to detect and respond to pheromones
3. Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein
4. Researchers reveal the infectious impact of salmon farms on wild salmon
5. Researchers discover molecule that causes secondary stroke
6. Researchers find missing genes of ancient organism
7. Researchers trace evolution to relatively simple genetic changes
8. Researchers add new tool to tumor-treatment arsenal
9. UF Researchers Map Bacterial Proteins That Cause Tooth Loss
10. VCU Researchers Identify Networks Of Genes Responding To Alcohol In The Brain
11. Researchers develop rapid diagnostic tool for pathogen identification
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:1/22/2016)... 22, 2016 ... the "Global Biometrics Market in Retail ... --> http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/p74whf/global_biometrics ) has ... Biometrics Market in Retail Sector 2016-2020" ... Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/p74whf/global_biometrics ) ...
(Date:1/20/2016)... Jan. 20, 2016 A market that just ... benefit from the explosion in genomics knowledge. Learn all ... Research. A range of dynamic trends are pushing market ... personalized medicine - pharmacogenomics - pathogen evolution - next ... markets - greater understanding of the role of genetic ...
(Date:1/20/2016)... 20, 2016  Synaptics Incorporated (NASDAQ: SYNA ... today announced sampling of S1423, its newest ClearPad ... small screen applications including smartwatches, fitness trackers, and ... and rectangular shapes, as well as thick and ... moisture on screen, while wearing gloves, and supports ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/4/2016)... , Feb. 4, 2016  Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. ... editing, announced today that Edward Lanphier , Sangamo,s ... on the progress of Sangamo,s ZFP Therapeutic ® ... strategy at 2:40 pm ET on Thursday, February 11, ... Global Healthcare Conference. The conference is being held in ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... SHENZHEN, China , Feb. 4, 2016 ... government, and various medical institutions attended a ceremony in ... provide integrative, personalized cell therapy in 2016. ... the "Shenzhen Clinical Translation Platform for Personalized Cell Therapy" ... Shenzhen Regional Cell Production Center, both subsidiaries of Beike ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... February 4, 2016 --> ... acceleration company is pleased to provide the following update on ... Over the last 3 months we have significantly increased ... agreements exceeding $1,000,000. As a result, we have positioned ourselves ... Inc. license agreement and expect that development to continue on ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... Sinovac Biotech Ltd. ("Sinovac" or the "Company") (NASDAQ: ... China , today announced that the ... February 4, 2016 a preliminary non-binding proposal letter, dated ... V-Ming ( Shanghai ) Investment Holdings Co., ... Shenzhen ) Fund Management Co., Ltd., Beijing ...
Breaking Biology Technology: