Navigation Links
Lab-on-a-chip could speed up treatment of drug-resistant pneumonia

The emergency treatment of drug-resistant infections with targeted antibiotics is often delayed by the need to identify bacterial strains by growing them in culture first. At this week's AVS 53rd International Symposium & Exhibition in San Francisco, Michael Lochhead, a bioengineer at the Denver biotechnology company Accelr8, described a new lab-on-a-chip that can identify single bacterial cells for the most common cases of drug-resistant pneumonia, cutting down the wait from days to hours. The technology could also help in the development of new drugs.

The constant bombardment by antibiotics and disinfectants has bred strains of super-bugs that only respond to very specific drugs. These super-bugs often lurk in hospitals, where patients with weakened immune systems can pick up obstinate, life-threatening infections such as pneumonia. "When you get pneumonia in the hospital, you're much more likely to get a resistant strain," Lochhead said. "It's an emerging public-health disaster."

The most acute cases are admitted into intensive care units, where doctors have just days, if not hours, to save the patients' lives, Lochhead said. But reliably identifying the bacterial strain that's causing the infection traditionally requires growing the bugs in culture first, a procedure that can take two to three days. Meanwhile, doctors often have no other option than to start stopgap treatments with broad-spectrum antibiotics.

The Accelr8 technology is a "microfluidic" lab-on-a-chip designed to manipulate and analyze bacteria without growing them first. Samples are first washed out of the patient's lungs with saline solution in a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. The organisms are then separated, suspended in a specially designed fluid, and pumped into the chip.

Inside the chip, the bacteria flow into several different compartments -- eight in the current version of the chip -- and are made to stick to a bacteria-friendly surface us ing an electric current. Antibodies then flow in. The antibodies bind specifically to certain strains of bacteria, and mark them with fluorescent dyes of different colors. The dyes color-code cells from known strains. A microscope monitors the viable cells -- those that are still reproducing -- and the rate at which they duplicate helps to identify their species.

In the next step, different antibiotics are pumped into the chambers. If the cells in a chamber stop reproducing, that indicates that a certain drug is likely to be effective at fighting the infection. The death of the bugs is confirmed by checking with a special dye.

Once the bacteria-carrying fluid is injected into the chip, the entire procedure is automatic-- including the counting of fluorescent-marked cells, which is done by a computer -- and takes less than eight hours.

One of the most difficult steps was to design a surface that would be hospitable to the bacteria but that would at the same time keep the antibodies and antibiotics from sticking to it, Lochhead said. While Accelr8 is working on finding a "universal" material that will allow virtually all pathogenic bacteria to stick to it, the company has so far focused on nine bacterial species that cause most of the cases of drug-resistant pneumonia, including Staphylococcus aureus (staph), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli (E. coli). "If we can characterize the nine panel organisms, we'll cover 80 to 90 percent of hospital-acquired pneumonia cases," Lochhead said.

The company also hopes to apply the technology not just to identifying known strains but also to testing the efficacy of new drugs, or of existing drugs on unknown strains. "Even if you don't know the identity of an organism, if you know which drug works, it's still useful," Lochhead says.

Accelr8, a former software company that refashioned itself into a biotechnology company, plans to place development in struments in collaborating clinical laboratories within a year.

Paper: "Microfluidic Devices That Capture Bacteria for Growth and Kill Analysis," Tuesday, November 14, 2006, 9:40am, Room 2001, AVS 53rd International Symposium & Exhibition, San Francisco, CA, abstract at http://www.avssymposium.org/paper.asp?abstractID=199
'"/>

Source:American Institute of Physics


Related biology news :

1. Protein discovery could unlock the secret to better TB treatment
2. Tiny particles could solve billion-dollar problem
3. First atlas of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases
4. Discovery of key proteins shape could lead to improved bacterial pneumonia vaccine
5. A comprehensive response to HIV could prevent 10 million AIDS deaths in Africa by 2020
6. How the environment could be damaging mens reproductive health
7. Dead zone area in Gulf could be increasing, researchers say
8. Growth in biomass could put US on road to energy independence
9. Nano-bumps could help repair clogged blood vessels
10. Researchers develop assay that could be applied to drug screening
11. Currents could disrupt ocean food chain

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/16/2016)... , June 16, 2016 ... is expected to reach USD 1.83 billion by ... View Research, Inc. Technological proliferation and increasing demand ... are expected to drive the market growth. ... The development of advanced multimodal techniques ...
(Date:6/3/2016)... LONDON , June 3, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... Transport Management) von Nepal ... ,Angebot und Lieferung hochsicherer geprägter Kennzeichen, einschließlich ... weltweit führend in der Produktion und Implementierung ... an der Ausschreibung im Januar teilgenommen, aber ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... 2016 Ampronix facilitates superior patient care by providing unparalleled technology to leaders ... is the latest premium product recently added to the range of products distributed by ... ... ... LCD Medical Display- Ampronix News ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... , June 27, 2016   Ginkgo Bioworks ... to industrial engineering, was today awarded as one ... selection of the world,s most innovative companies. Ginkgo ... scale for the real world in the nutrition, ... engineers work directly with customers including Fortune 500 ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... 2016 , ... While the majority of commercial spectrophotometers and fluorometers use the ... models are higher end machines that use the more unconventional z-dimension of 20mm. ... the bottom of the cuvette holder. , FireflySci has developed several Agilent flow ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Wausau, WI (PRWEB) , ... June 23, 2016 ... ... probiotic supplements, is pleased to announce the launch of their brand, UP4™ Probiotics, ... supplements for over 35 years, is proud to add Target to its list ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016 A person commits a crime, and the ... track the criminal down. An outbreak of foodborne ... Administration (FDA) uses DNA evidence to track down the bacteria ... far-fetched? It,s not. The FDA has increasingly used a complex, ... foodborne illnesses. Put as simply as possible, whole genome sequencing ...
Breaking Biology Technology: