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How the neuron sprouts its branches

discovered in dendrites called Golgi outposts might play a role."

The researchers studied the dendritic growth process in pyramidal neurons, which grow a single long "apical" dendrite and many shorter ones. To explore the role of Golgi outposts, they used imaging of living rat brain cells grown in culture, as well as electron microscopy of rat brain tissue.

These studies revealed that the Golgi outposts tended to appear in longer dendrites and also that those Golgi in the main cell body tended to orient toward longer dendrites. And importantly, said Ehlers, the studies in cell culture revealed that the Golgi orientation preceded the preferential growth of long dendrites.

"This finding showed us that we weren't just seeing a correlation between Golgi and longer dendrites," said Ehlers. "Initially, when these growing dendrites are all essentially uniform in length, they grow at about the same rate. But later, after the Golgi orient toward one dendrite, it takes off and grows dynamically to become the longest dendrite." The researchers also used tracer molecules to track the molecular cargo secreted by the Golgi, said Ehlers.

"We saw very clearly that this cargo that originates in the Golgi gets directed towards the one longest dendrite in a highly preferential way," he said. "As cargo comes out of the Golgi, it does not go randomly to the cell surface." Ehlers and his colleagues also found that the Golgi outposts appeared to locate themselves at dendritic branch points.

"This finding is important because a fundamental problem that neurons must solve is how to sort appropriate cargo molecules in the right amounts down different dendritic branches," said Ehlers. "After all, different dendritic branches can have different functional properties, molecular composition and electrical properties. So, when a cargo reaches a branch point, it's like a highway intersection, and the cargo needs to be directed. We've found that these dendri
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Source:Duke University Medical Center


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