Navigation Links
At the molecular level, the predator is the prey

An evolutionary arms race between predatory garter snakes and their newt quarry is turning out to be something of an illusion. At the molecular level, another battle rages. And in this second, miniature realm, it's the newt who's the aggressor.

Biologists at Indiana University Bloomington, Utah State University and the University of Utah present evidence in this week's Nature that a toxin produced by the rough skinned newt, Taricha granulosa, has forced several evolutionary changes in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis or, more specifically, in the snake nerve cell protein that endures the toxin's attacks.

Embedded in the surface of garter snake nerve cells is tsNa(V)1.4, a tube-shaped protein that allows sodium ions to flow into the cell. When nerve cells' ability to move sodium in and out is hampered, paralysis and death can result. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a powerful paralytic poison concentrated in the newts' skin, can bind to garter snake nerve cell channels and prevent sodium ions from flowing freely.

"These channels are absolutely fundamental to every aspect of nerve and muscle function and are highly specific gateways for sodium ions," said IUB biologist Edmund Brodie III, one of the paper's coauthors. "If the channels change too much or in the wrong way, they can't perform their basic, everyday functions. Sodium channel genes in different vertebrates are virtually identical to each other, but not in these snakes. We're finding a molecular arms race is driving rapid and repeated changes in the gene within this group of beasts."

For TTX to bind successfully to the sodium channel, the toxin needs something to bind to. At this moment in the garter snake's evolutionary history, TTX infiltrates a hole on tsNa(V)1.4's surface, binding to an aromatic amino acid and causing enough of a change in the sodium channel's shape to impair its function. Three of the four Pacific Northwest snake populations the scientists examined have evolved som
'"/>

Source:Indiana University


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Scientists ID molecular switch in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats
2. Source of molecular triggers in cutaneous T cell lymphoma identified
3. Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms
4. NYU researchers simulate molecular biological clock
5. Scientists reveal molecular secrets of the malaria parasite
6. Scientists identify molecular events that drive cell senescence
7. Researchers discover molecular mechanism that desensitizes us to cold
8. Findings have implications for tracking disease, drugs at the molecular level
9. Successful Test Of Single Molecule Switch Opens The Door To Biomolecular Electronics
10. By creating molecular bridge, scientists change function of a protein
11. NIH creates nationwide network of molecular libraries screening centers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: the molecular level the predator the prey

(Date:5/18/2015)... Fingerprint Cards (FPC) has received an ... and FPC1035 from one if its module partners. Deliveries are ... 2015 and the sensors will be used by smartphone manufacturers ... 2015 hereby amount to 740 MSEK to date. In addition ... and a number of smaller orders not separately communicated amounting ...
(Date:5/14/2015)... 14, 2015  Verificient Technologies, Inc., a ... online remote proctoring, announced a new alliance ... and creator of the Canvas Learning Management ... companies will benefit from the seamless integration ... As a fully integrated multifactor biometrics behavioral ...
(Date:5/11/2015)... May 11, 2015  Through a well-rounded UAS delegation representing ... had a strong showing at AUVSI,s Unmanned 2015 conference last ... Ohio,s UAS industry met with over ... all points along the UAS ecosystem. "Our ... Vice President for Aerospace Rich Knoll . "If you ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Fingerprint Cards Receives Touch Fingerprint Sensor Order of SEK 230 Million and Raises Revenue Guidance for 2015 2Verificient and Instructure Announce Alliance Partnership to Provide Online Proctoring for K-12 and Higher Education Institutions 2Ohio Flies High at Unmanned '15, Sets Stage for Ohio UAS Conference 2
... hydrogen gas the ultimate fuel for stars is ... Robert Braun has found.,This is the first accurate measurement of ... after the Big Bang the Universe,s matter was almost entirely ... and generated galaxies, stars and planets and the process ...
... a fjord in Canada scientists have found a landscape similar ... a frozen and sulphurous environment, where sulphur associated with Arctic ... for traces of life on Europa. It is ... and sulphur come together, supposedly like on Europa, Jupiter,s moon. ...
... LA JOLLA, CA----A new method for rapidly solving the ... as integral membrane proteins, may speed drug discovery by ... to a paper published May 20 in Nature ... the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, provides a shortcut ...
Cached Biology News:There's more star-stuff out there but it's not dark matter 2Arctic bacteria help in the search to find life on moon Europa 2Speeding up drug discovery with rapid 3-D mapping of proteins 2Speeding up drug discovery with rapid 3-D mapping of proteins 3
(Date:5/28/2015)... NORTH BRUNSWICK, N.J. , May 28, 2015 ... that PDS0101, a cancer immunotherapy treatment targeting HPV-16, ... patients.  Currently, pre-cervical cancer is ... could offer a simple and effective non-surgical alternative. ... body,s defense mechanisms (T-cells) to recognize, target, and ...
(Date:5/28/2015)... Md. , May 28, 2015  GenVec, Inc. ... and CEO, Douglas J. Swirsky , will present ... Conference at 11 a.m. EDT on Thursday, June 4, ... of Mr. Swirsky,s presentation will be available at the ... be available on GenVec,s website.  To access, visit ...
(Date:5/28/2015)... Sunnyvale, Californiaa (PRWEB) May 28, 2015 ... on “ The Changing Landscape of EMR/EHR Clinical Data ... Annual Meeting taking place in Washington, DC on June ... the challenges of integrating EMR/EHR systems with EDC, and ... the opportunities brought by eSource and electronic health records/electronic ...
(Date:5/28/2015)... American Process Inc. (Atlanta, GA) and ... signed a joint agreement to improve ... nanocellulose, a rapidly emerging high performance, bioderived nanomaterial. ... limited number of feedstock materials available. Traditionally used ... parts for load bearing applications. , The ...
Breaking Biology Technology:PDS Biotechnology reports positive Phase I clinical trial results in proprietary HPV-Cancer Immunotherapy 2GenVec To Present At The Jefferies Healthcare Conference 2Clinovo Presents at the DIA 2015 51st Annual Meeting in Washington, DC on June 14th-18th 2American Process Inc. Announces Partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to Make 3D Printing Plastic Resins Stronger and More Sustainable 2American Process Inc. Announces Partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to Make 3D Printing Plastic Resins Stronger and More Sustainable 3
... SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO, Calif., May 5 VaxGen,Inc. ... it has completed the sale of all assets ... anthrax vaccine product candidate and,related technology to Emergent ... BioSolutions paid VaxGen $2 million upon execution of,the ...
... May 2 Biopure Corporation,(Nasdaq: BPUR ) ... Kingdom,s,Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is ... The purpose of the meeting is to clarify ... April 2008 from the United Kingdom,s Commission,on Human ...
... Roche is pleased to announce that,Grace Ju, Ph.D., research ... an "Outstanding Woman of Science" by the New Jersey,Association ... Thank You,Research Gala held May 1 at the Bridgewater ... at this year,s event, which is also,marking the 20th ...
Cached Biology Technology:VaxGen Sells Anthrax Vaccine Program and Related Assets and Technology to Emergent BioSolutions, Inc. 2Biopure Announces Date to Meet with UK's Medicines and Healthcare Products Agency 2Biopure Announces Date to Meet with UK's Medicines and Healthcare Products Agency 3Roche Research Director Grace Ju Hailed as NJABR 'Outstanding Woman of Science' 2Roche Research Director Grace Ju Hailed as NJABR 'Outstanding Woman of Science' 3
Matrix for protein MALDI-MS...
Originally developed for the culture of Drosophila; suitable for culture of other dipteran cell lines. Powder, Insect cell culture tested...
... number is a new product ... Cornings product number. If showing ... under the old Sigma-Aldrich number ... for assistance. Mfr Desig: ...
Collected from calves that are 10 days old or less. Sterile, cell culture tested, US Origin...
Biology Products: