Navigation Links
At the molecular level, the predator is the prey

An evolutionary arms race between predatory garter snakes and their newt quarry is turning out to be something of an illusion. At the molecular level, another battle rages. And in this second, miniature realm, it's the newt who's the aggressor.

Biologists at Indiana University Bloomington, Utah State University and the University of Utah present evidence in this week's Nature that a toxin produced by the rough skinned newt, Taricha granulosa, has forced several evolutionary changes in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis or, more specifically, in the snake nerve cell protein that endures the toxin's attacks.

Embedded in the surface of garter snake nerve cells is tsNa(V)1.4, a tube-shaped protein that allows sodium ions to flow into the cell. When nerve cells' ability to move sodium in and out is hampered, paralysis and death can result. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a powerful paralytic poison concentrated in the newts' skin, can bind to garter snake nerve cell channels and prevent sodium ions from flowing freely.

"These channels are absolutely fundamental to every aspect of nerve and muscle function and are highly specific gateways for sodium ions," said IUB biologist Edmund Brodie III, one of the paper's coauthors. "If the channels change too much or in the wrong way, they can't perform their basic, everyday functions. Sodium channel genes in different vertebrates are virtually identical to each other, but not in these snakes. We're finding a molecular arms race is driving rapid and repeated changes in the gene within this group of beasts."

For TTX to bind successfully to the sodium channel, the toxin needs something to bind to. At this moment in the garter snake's evolutionary history, TTX infiltrates a hole on tsNa(V)1.4's surface, binding to an aromatic amino acid and causing enough of a change in the sodium channel's shape to impair its function. Three of the four Pacific Northwest snake populations the scientists examined have evolved som
'"/>

Source:Indiana University


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Scientists ID molecular switch in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats
2. Source of molecular triggers in cutaneous T cell lymphoma identified
3. Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms
4. NYU researchers simulate molecular biological clock
5. Scientists reveal molecular secrets of the malaria parasite
6. Scientists identify molecular events that drive cell senescence
7. Researchers discover molecular mechanism that desensitizes us to cold
8. Findings have implications for tracking disease, drugs at the molecular level
9. Successful Test Of Single Molecule Switch Opens The Door To Biomolecular Electronics
10. By creating molecular bridge, scientists change function of a protein
11. NIH creates nationwide network of molecular libraries screening centers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: the molecular level the predator the prey

(Date:7/25/2014)... Ravi Birla, associate professor of biomedical engineering at ... textbook on tissue engineering and artificial organ development., ... a comprehensive guide to entering into the field ... and professor of biomedical engineering at UH, served ... said that while there are other published books ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... a complex congenital central nervous system disease that ... neural tubes during the embryonic phase. Many patients ... incontinence and neurocognitive retardation. Such problems decrease the ... Researchers at Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Education ... in children with SB, using the Pediatric Evaluation ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... The routine use of a molecular testing panel ... performing the correct initial surgery for patients with ... University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI), partner with ... Multidisciplinary Thyroid Center and other diagnostic testing agencies, ... initial surgery by 30 percent, according to the ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):University of Houston researcher publishes textbook on tissue engineering 2Test increases odds of correct surgery for thyroid cancer patients 2Test increases odds of correct surgery for thyroid cancer patients 3
... Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva ... single gene in living cells. In an unprecedented study, published in ... were able to follow, in real time, the process of gene ... molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA) that go on to ...
... A study of DNA rearrangements in roundworm chromosomes may offer ... tumors. A report of the research led by University ... was published in the April 22 online edition of the ... region of repetitive DNA sequence that protects the ends of ...
... Infection Research (HZI) in Braunschweig, Germany have discovered a new, ... cells: In this entry mode, the bacteria exploit the muscle ... cytoplasm. Thus, the strategies Salmonella use to infect ... World Health Organization, the number of Salmonella infections ...
Cached Biology News:Scientists observe single gene activity in living cells 2Study in roundworm chromosomes may offer new clues to tumor genome development 2Salmonella utilize multiple modes of infection 2
(Date:7/24/2014)... -- Keryx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:KERX) (the "Company") announced the ... Phase 3 study of Zerenex (ferric citrate), the Company,s ... of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) ... delivery with FErric CiTrate in EsrD) was published online ... of Nephrology ( JASN ). , ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... Gain recognition for leadership and ... the biotech industry. Nominations are now being accepted ... you by the Bio Supply Management Alliance ... management professionals for the past 7 years. , ... Biotech industry – Manufacturers, Service Providers, Material Suppliers, ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... , July 24, 2014  Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc. ... emerging field of regenerative medicine, announced today that ... presentation to investors on Tuesday, July 29, 2014, ... presentation will include an overview of Asterias, business ... webcast, visit http://www.ustream.tv/channel/asterias-biotherapeutics at least 15 ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... rely on sophisticated equipment, trained personnel, and detection ... against terrorist attacks. A revolutionary new electronic chip ... their job much easier. , The groundbreaking nanotechnology-inspired ... Aviv University ,s School of Chemistry and Center ... Herzliya company Tracense, picks up the scent of ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 2Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 3Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 4Call for Submission: BSMA’s Supply Chain Management Innovation Awards 2Call for Submission: BSMA’s Supply Chain Management Innovation Awards 3Asterias Biotherapeutics Announces Live Investor Webcast 2Asterias Biotherapeutics Announces Live Investor Webcast 3Asterias Biotherapeutics Announces Live Investor Webcast 4Nano-sized chip 'sniffs out' explosives far better than trained dogs 2
... Jessica N Ebright 1 and Catherine Bowes Rickman 1, 2, ... Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, , NC 27710 ... , Duke University Medical Center, Box 3802, Durham, NC ... bowes007@duke.edu , , ...
... Julio E Celis 1 , Morten stergaard 1 , Pamela Celis 1 , Hanne ... 2 , 1 Department of Medical Biochemistry ... University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark , 2 Department ... Bladder cancer comprises a broad spectrum of tumors that includes ...
... Diana Davis, Aiguo Zhang, Jim Torrence, and Emily Dale, Bio-Rad Laboratories,Inc., 2000 Alfred Nobel ... Introduction , ... The concentrations of analytes in these assays ... standard curve. A regression analysis is performed to derive , ...
Cached Biology Technology:Rapid, Reproducible Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Using the iCycler iQ Real-Time PCR Detection System and iQ Supermix, Rev A 2Rapid, Reproducible Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Using the iCycler iQ Real-Time PCR Detection System and iQ Supermix, Rev A 3Rapid, Reproducible Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Using the iCycler iQ Real-Time PCR Detection System and iQ Supermix, Rev A 4Rapid, Reproducible Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Using the iCycler iQ Real-Time PCR Detection System and iQ Supermix, Rev A 5Rapid, Reproducible Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Using the iCycler iQ Real-Time PCR Detection System and iQ Supermix, Rev A 6Rapid, Reproducible Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Using the iCycler iQ Real-Time PCR Detection System and iQ Supermix, Rev A 7Rapid, Reproducible Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Using the iCycler iQ Real-Time PCR Detection System and iQ Supermix, Rev A 8Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 2Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 3Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 4Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 5Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 6Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 7Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 8Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 9Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 10Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C 11Selection of Standards for Bio-Plex Cytokine Assays, Rev A 2Selection of Standards for Bio-Plex Cytokine Assays, Rev A 3Selection of Standards for Bio-Plex Cytokine Assays, Rev A 4Selection of Standards for Bio-Plex Cytokine Assays, Rev A 5Selection of Standards for Bio-Plex Cytokine Assays, Rev A 6Selection of Standards for Bio-Plex Cytokine Assays, Rev A 7Selection of Standards for Bio-Plex Cytokine Assays, Rev A 8
ERalpha (Ser 104/106)...
... while maintaining high cell viability , ... , Fast: less than one ... , Highly reproducible results from ... with the Bio-Rad Gene Pulser Xcell System ...
Agarose, pulse field, 250 g. Nuclease-free.Gel point (1.5%): 36 1.5 C, EEO (-mr): 1800 g/cm2. Category: Nucleotides & Enzymes & Biochemicals, Ultrapure Biochemicals ....
Mouse CXCR3 Allophycocyanin MAb (Clone 220803)...
Biology Products: