Navigation Links
Team creates novel vaccine that produces strong immunity against cocaine high
Date:1/4/2011

ug," said Janda, the Eli R. Callaway Jr. Chair in Chemistry and a member of the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at Scripps Research. "In essence we view such vaccines as 'immuno-helpers' for treating substance abuse, and, in the case at hand, it might prove to be extremely useful for crack addicts whose relapse rate is exceedingly high."

The Drug

According to the latest statistics available from National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in 2008 5.3 million Americans age 12 and older had abused cocaine in any form and 1.1 million had abused crack at least once in the year prior to being surveyed.

Cocaine, derived from the leaf of the Erythroxylaceae coca plant, is a highly potent drug that, as a salt, is either snorted or dissolved in water and injected directly into the bloodstream. The salt is also often neutralized to make an insoluble "free-base" form that is smoked.

Once ingested in the bloodstream, the drug crosses the bloodbrain barrier and accumulates rapidly in the brain. "The brain levels rise very rapidly once cocaine is taken into the system," said Janda.

Moreover, the cocaine builds up in parts of the brain reward systems such as the nucleus accumbens. There, the cocaine molecules interfere with the normal regulation of dopamine by binding to dopamine transporters and blocking them from recycling the neurotransmitter.

This leads to the build-up of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, which produces a euphoric feeling in the usera quick rush that hits seconds after taking the drug and lasts several minutes. The psychological effect of this immediate reward is the basis for drug seeking in users. Compulsive usersaddictswill keep a perceived desire for the effect that will many times confound a recovering addict's best efforts to stay clean.

There is a common report among intravenous drug addicts that their first injectionthat first snort of coke, shot of
'/>"/>

Contact: Mika Ono
mikaono@scripps.edu
858-784-2052
Scripps Research Institute
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology news :

1. Early-stage gene transcription creates access to DNA
2. MIT creates tiny backpacks for cells
3. Florida professor creates endowment for insect scientists
4. Crustacean shell with polyester creates mixed-fiber material for nerve repair
5. NYSCF Fellow lead author on study that creates blood vessel cells from stem cells
6. $15 million stimulus award creates national consortium for revealing scientific resources
7. Antarctica glacier retreat creates new carbon dioxide store
8. Bowman creates graphic translation of climate change data
9. Breeding orchid species creates a new perfume
10. Zapping Titan-like atmosphere with UV rays creates life precursors
11. Exposure to early evening sunlight in spring creates teenage night owls
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:7/30/2014)... been awarded the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research,s ... , SCAR, an inter-disciplinary international science body, initiates, ... in the Antarctic region, and on the role ... The organisation also provides scientific advice about Antarctica ... the region. , The medal is open internationally ...
(Date:7/30/2014)... the roughly 3,000 pieces is still in its infant ... will be of major significance. "Amazingly often, we are ... Fushun amber that we found in Baltic amber," explained ... Baltic amber comes from the Baltic Sea region, which ... finds are, e.g., the coastal regions of Mecklenburg, Poland ...
(Date:7/29/2014)... BELLINGHAM, Washington, USA The advanced optical methods and ... are driving a revolution in the neurosciences were the ... published by SPIE, the international society for optics and ... of the BRAIN Initiative in the United States, and ... vision for and provide examples of the impact that ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Chinese mosquitos on the Baltic Sea 2SPIE launches Neurophotonics journal with special section on BRAIN Initiative 2SPIE launches Neurophotonics journal with special section on BRAIN Initiative 3
... science prize was today awarded to a researcher who is looking ... someone in a noisy place, such as a party or bar, ... these situations. , Not being able to hear a person's voice ... most common problems for Britain's nine million people with a hearing ...
... Houston, Texas have found two bacterial muscle infections common ... the emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), according ... of Clinical Infectious Diseases, now available online. , Staphylococcus ... the skin or in the nose of a quarter ...
... two inexpensive technologies that may be able to prevent ... E. coli in contaminated spinach. , Together, these technologies ... first method uses a laser to detect and identify ... faster and one-tenth as expensive as current technology. ...
Cached Biology News:Train your brain to hear your friends at a party 2Train your brain to hear your friends at a party 3Train your brain to hear your friends at a party 4Study shows antibiotic-resistant bacteria responsible for increase in muscle infections 2Researchers develop technologies to devour food pathogens 2Researchers develop technologies to devour food pathogens 3
(Date:7/30/2014)... Vala Sciences was recently awarded ... Agency (EPA). This new contract was awarded for ... tests designed to assess the effect of chemical ... connections between neurons (synapses), which are critical for ... by environmental pollutants likely contributes to a variety ...
(Date:7/29/2014)... MA (PRWEB) July 30, 2014 ... (UC) and collaboration company, is proud to announce ... account management positions in their Boston, Charleston and ... response to the increased demand for hosted solutions, ... operational efficiency and reduce cost. , SoundConnect was ...
(Date:7/29/2014)... , July 29, 2014   Sequenom, Inc. ... that provides innovative genetic analysis solutions, and Mayo ... laboratory services in the United States ... testing patents and applications. "We have great ... patient care, and we welcome the opportunity to partner ...
(Date:7/29/2014)... of researchers has created a new way of ... These surfaces, made by self-assembly of carbon nanotubes, ... including controllable mechanical stiffness and strength, or the ... , "We have demonstrated that mechanical forces can ... three-dimensional microstructures, and that we can independently control ...
Breaking Biology Technology:U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Awards Vala Sciences a Second ToxCast Contract 2U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Awards Vala Sciences a Second ToxCast Contract 3SoundConnect Organization and Culture is Evolving 2Sequenom Enters Into License Agreement With Mayo Medical Laboratories 2Sequenom Enters Into License Agreement With Mayo Medical Laboratories 3Sequenom Enters Into License Agreement With Mayo Medical Laboratories 4A new way to make microstructured surfaces 2
... small-molecule ... -, - Lead compound AEG40826 works synergistically with HGS TRAIL receptor ... drugs -, - IAP inhibitors also show promise alone and in ... cancer agents across broad range of cancers -, ROCKVILLE, Md. and MONTREAL, ...
... Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: NWBO; AIM: NWBS ... Lonza Group AG has,withdrawn all claims of ... NWBT DCVax(R) products other than DCVax(R)-Prostate.,Lonza had ... infringed,certain gene expression technology patents held by ...
... Helix BioPharma Corp.,(TSX, FSE: "HBP") today announced ... for gross proceeds of CDN$16,867,200., About ... is a biopharmaceutical company specializing in,the field ... developing innovative,products for the prevention and treatment ...
Cached Biology Technology:Human Genome Sciences and Aegera Therapeutics Announce Licensing and Collaboration Agreement on Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs 2Human Genome Sciences and Aegera Therapeutics Announce Licensing and Collaboration Agreement on Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs 3Human Genome Sciences and Aegera Therapeutics Announce Licensing and Collaboration Agreement on Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs 4Human Genome Sciences and Aegera Therapeutics Announce Licensing and Collaboration Agreement on Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs 5Human Genome Sciences and Aegera Therapeutics Announce Licensing and Collaboration Agreement on Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs 6Lonza Withdraws Majority of Claims in Patent Lawsuit Against Northwest Biotherapeutics 2Lonza Withdraws Majority of Claims in Patent Lawsuit Against Northwest Biotherapeutics 3Lonza Withdraws Majority of Claims in Patent Lawsuit Against Northwest Biotherapeutics 4Helix BioPharma closes $16.9 million private placement of common shares 2
... Maxi Kit provides a fast and simple ... Triton X-100 and other detergents from ... using Norgens patented protein resin as an ... processing 0.25 - 8 mg of either ...
Values of steady state parameters for enzyme activities are determined....
Each Yeast-GFP clone represents an individual S. cerevisiae strain containing an open reading frame with a C-terminal Aequorea Victoria GFP (S65T) fusion tag....
... Nucleic acid hybridization Preparation Reconstitution: ... BSA, 50 mg ficoll and ... 5 ml of water yields ... molecular biology Density: 1.00 g/mL ...
Biology Products: