Navigation Links
Team creates novel vaccine that produces strong immunity against cocaine high
Date:1/4/2011

ug," said Janda, the Eli R. Callaway Jr. Chair in Chemistry and a member of the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at Scripps Research. "In essence we view such vaccines as 'immuno-helpers' for treating substance abuse, and, in the case at hand, it might prove to be extremely useful for crack addicts whose relapse rate is exceedingly high."

The Drug

According to the latest statistics available from National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in 2008 5.3 million Americans age 12 and older had abused cocaine in any form and 1.1 million had abused crack at least once in the year prior to being surveyed.

Cocaine, derived from the leaf of the Erythroxylaceae coca plant, is a highly potent drug that, as a salt, is either snorted or dissolved in water and injected directly into the bloodstream. The salt is also often neutralized to make an insoluble "free-base" form that is smoked.

Once ingested in the bloodstream, the drug crosses the bloodbrain barrier and accumulates rapidly in the brain. "The brain levels rise very rapidly once cocaine is taken into the system," said Janda.

Moreover, the cocaine builds up in parts of the brain reward systems such as the nucleus accumbens. There, the cocaine molecules interfere with the normal regulation of dopamine by binding to dopamine transporters and blocking them from recycling the neurotransmitter.

This leads to the build-up of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, which produces a euphoric feeling in the usera quick rush that hits seconds after taking the drug and lasts several minutes. The psychological effect of this immediate reward is the basis for drug seeking in users. Compulsive usersaddictswill keep a perceived desire for the effect that will many times confound a recovering addict's best efforts to stay clean.

There is a common report among intravenous drug addicts that their first injectionthat first snort of coke, shot of
'/>"/>

Contact: Mika Ono
mikaono@scripps.edu
858-784-2052
Scripps Research Institute
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology news :

1. Early-stage gene transcription creates access to DNA
2. MIT creates tiny backpacks for cells
3. Florida professor creates endowment for insect scientists
4. Crustacean shell with polyester creates mixed-fiber material for nerve repair
5. NYSCF Fellow lead author on study that creates blood vessel cells from stem cells
6. $15 million stimulus award creates national consortium for revealing scientific resources
7. Antarctica glacier retreat creates new carbon dioxide store
8. Bowman creates graphic translation of climate change data
9. Breeding orchid species creates a new perfume
10. Zapping Titan-like atmosphere with UV rays creates life precursors
11. Exposure to early evening sunlight in spring creates teenage night owls
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:7/24/2014)... Scientists at The New York Stem Cell Foundation ... creating a viable cell replacement therapy for multiple ... For the first time, NYSCF scientists generated induced ... of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis and ... these stem cells into becoming oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... Citing many sobering examples of how wildlife loss leads ... article co-authored by Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Health ... Christopher Golden, calls for an interdisciplinary approach to tackle ... directly supports about 15% of the world,s people and ... world,s poor. It should come as no surprise that ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... New York, NY - July 24, 2014 -- Keryx ... results from the long-term, randomized, active control Phase 3 ... ferric iron-based phosphate binder, for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia ... The PERFECTED study (PhosphatE binding and iRon delivery with ... the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):NYSCF scientists one step closer to cell therapy for multiple sclerosis patients 2New study draws links between wildlife loss and social conflicts 2Zerenex™ (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 2Zerenex™ (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 3Zerenex™ (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 4
... influenza caused widespread death and illness in 1918, 1957, 1968 ... time of these pandemics finds that each of them was ... study,s authors--Jeffrey Shaman of Columbia University,s Mailman School of Public ... Healthnote that the La Nia pattern is known to alter ...
... new varieties of corn with a higher yield faster than ... Germany, and other institutions are relying on a trick: early ... chemical and genetic makeup, as well as on new statistical ... authoritative journal Nature Genetics on Sunday evening, Jan. ...
... proteins have characteristic ways of "walking," which (also like human ... have discovered the unique "drunken sailor" gait of dynein, a ... in the body and whose malfunction has been associated with ... The research, which was led by Samara Reck-Peterson ...
Cached Biology News:Does the La Niña weather pattern lead to flu pandemics? 2Good parents are predictable -- at least when it comes to corn 2Good parents are predictable -- at least when it comes to corn 3Good parents are predictable -- at least when it comes to corn 4Walk this way: Scientists and MBL physiology students describe how a motor protein 'steps out' 2
(Date:7/25/2014)... At the request of the AMA, the ... for the public comment period (Docket No. FAA-2014-0396) for ... established by Congress as part of the FAA Modernization ... the new deadline for comments as September 23, 2014. ... published in the Federal Register on July 25, 2014, ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... , July 25, 2014 Sinovac Biotech Ltd. ... products in China , today announced that ... quarter ended June 30, 2014, after market close on Thursday, ... call prior to the market opening on Friday, August 15, ... 8:00 p.m. China Standard Time) to review the Company,s financial ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... July 24, 2014 -- Keryx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:KERX) (the ... randomized, active control Phase 3 study of Zerenex (ferric ... for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage ... binding and iRon delivery with FErric CiTrate in EsrD) ... the American Society of Nephrology ( JASN ). ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... RIDGE, Tenn., July 24, 2014 -- A novel combination ... the Department of Energy,s Oak Ridge National Laboratory an ... for its unusual physical and electrochemical properties. , ... how oxygen affects the surface of a perovskite manganite, ... behavior. The new avenue to understand surface behavior could ...
Breaking Biology Technology:FAA Grants Comment Extension at the Request of AMA 2Sinovac to Host Conference Call to Report Second Quarter 2014 Unaudited Financial Results 2Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 2Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 3Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 4ORNL study reveals new characteristics of complex oxide surfaces 2
... - Company to Host Conference Call at 4:30 p.m. ET ... PCYC ) today reported financial results for its fourth ... for the fourth quarter of,fiscal 2008 was $4.6 million, or ... or $0.27 per share, for the fourth quarter of fiscal ...
... is accelerating improvements for converting plant biomass into biofuelas ... needs, reports Eddy Rubin, Director of the U.S. Department ... August 14 edition of the journal Nature . ... a path forward for how emerging genomic technologies will ...
... SGX Pharmaceuticals, Inc.,(Nasdaq: SGXP ) today announced that ... leading proxy advisory firms, have,recommended that SGX stockholders vote ... LLY ) at the SGX Special Stockholders Meeting,scheduled ... The Board of Directors of SGX unanimously recommends ...
Cached Biology Technology:Pharmacyclics Reports Fourth Quarter and Fiscal 2008 Financial Results 2Pharmacyclics Reports Fourth Quarter and Fiscal 2008 Financial Results 3Pharmacyclics Reports Fourth Quarter and Fiscal 2008 Financial Results 4Pharmacyclics Reports Fourth Quarter and Fiscal 2008 Financial Results 5Pharmacyclics Reports Fourth Quarter and Fiscal 2008 Financial Results 6DOE JGI Director Eddy Rubin highlights the genomics of plant-based biofuels in the journal Nature 2DOE JGI Director Eddy Rubin highlights the genomics of plant-based biofuels in the journal Nature 3DOE JGI Director Eddy Rubin highlights the genomics of plant-based biofuels in the journal Nature 4SGX - Lilly Merger Offer Receives Positive Opinions From Proxy Advisory Firms 2SGX - Lilly Merger Offer Receives Positive Opinions From Proxy Advisory Firms 3SGX - Lilly Merger Offer Receives Positive Opinions From Proxy Advisory Firms 4
... the principal excitatory neurotransmitter receptors ... glutamate receptors exist: Ionotropic receptors, ... receptors are oligomeric complexes of ... which comprise ligand-gated calcium channels. ...
Recommended fro Western blotting application...
... KLF15 is a Cys2-His2 zinc finger gene. ... liver, kidneys, heart, and skeletal muscle. ... produced in rabbits immunized with a synthetic ... KLF15 with an internal ID of P03590 ...
... Sac-Cel (Second Antibody Coated CELlulose) was developed ... of Dartford, Kent, one of the earliest ... IDS acquired the product range in 1987. ... clinical biochemists developing their own "in house" ...
Biology Products: