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Seafloor, sea-level, shear zones, subduction, sedimentation, and seismology
Date:1/14/2014

th the conjugate margins of the northern Red Sea. Such a pattern is consistent with a pure shear model of extension, and suggests that the greater amounts of uplift and volcanism on the eastern side of the Red Sea compared to the western side may be the result of deeper flow in the mantle associated with the African superplume and not directly a consequence of the rifting process.


Incipient sediment motion across the river to debris-flow transition
Jeff P. Prancevic et al., California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 170-25, Pasadena, California 91125, USA; jprancev@caltech.edu. Posted online 10 January 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G34927.1.

River channels steeper than 5% grade make up most of the drainage network in mountainous landscapes and are the source of devastating debris flows, yet little work has been done to understand how and when sediment moves in these channels. Jeff P. Prancevic and colleagues conducted a series of experiments in a laboratory model river to identify the critical conditions for sediment motion in steep channels and whether this motion occurs as normal river transport of single grains or en masse failure of a collection of grains. In their experiments, normal river transport becomes progressively less effective at moving sediment with increased grade and gives way to en masse failure at about 40% grade. This transition is predicted well by previous models that depend on the respective Mohr-Coulomb friction angles of individual grains and a collection of grains. Use of these models and knowledge of friction angles allows us to predict where the process transition is likely to occur in natural rivers, aiding efforts to mitigate damage by debris flows and improving our understanding of how mountains erode.



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Contact: Kea Giles
kgiles@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America
Source:Eurekalert

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