Navigation Links
Researchers show how cells' DNA repair machinery can destroy viruses
Date:1/21/2013

A team of researchers based at Johns Hopkins has decoded a system that makes certain types of immune cells impervious to HIV infection. The system's two vital components are high levels of a molecule that becomes embedded in viral DNA like a code written in invisible ink, and an enzyme that, when it reads the code, switches from repairing the DNA to chopping it up into unusable pieces. The researchers, who report the find in the Jan. 21 early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, say the discovery points toward a new approach to eradicating HIV from the body.

"For decades, we've seen conflicting reports on whether each of these components helped protect cells from viruses," says James Stivers, Ph.D., a professor of pharmacology and molecular sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine's Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences. "By plotting how much of each are found in different types of cells, as well as the cells' response to HIV, we learned that both are needed to get the protective effect."

Researchers have long known that DNA's code is made up of four building blocks called nucleotides, commonly abbreviated A, T, G, and C. Before a cell divides, DNA-copying enzymes string these nucleotides together based on existing templates, so that each of the new cells gets its own copy of the genome. But because the T nucleotide, dTTP, is very similar to dUTP, a fifth nucleotide that doesn't belong in DNA, the copying enzyme sometimes mistakenly puts in a U where there should be a T.

To prevent this, says Stivers, most human cell types have an enzyme whose job is to break down dUTP, keeping its levels very low. Another quality control measure is the enzyme hUNG2, which snips stray Us out of newly copied DNA strands, leaving the resulting holes to be filled by a different repair enzyme. Certain immune cells called resting cells lack the first quality-control mechanism because, Stivers explain
'/>"/>

Contact: Shawna Williams
shawna@jhmi.edu
410-955-8236
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Source:Eurekalert  

Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Researchers turn one form of neuron into another in the brain
2. UGA researchers invent new material for warm-white LEDs
3. RUB researchers find over active enzyme in failing hearts
4. Researchers attack HIVs final defenses before drug-resistant mutations emerge
5. Researchers create flexible, nanoscale bed of nails for possible drug delivery
6. Researchers identify a new gene with a key role in obesity and diabetes
7. GW researchers find variation in foot strike patterns in predominantly barefoot runners
8. Joslin researchers identify important factor in fat storage and energy metabolism
9. UCSB researchers perform pioneering research on Type 2 diabetes
10. Researchers develop tool to evaluate genome sequencing method
11. Jackson Laboratory researchers provide definitive proof for receptors role in synapse development
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Researchers show how cells' DNA repair machinery can destroy viruses
(Date:10/15/2014)... Geneticist Fred Alt will be awarded the 44th Rosenstiel ... University for his pioneering research exploring the mechanisms of ... and cancer cells. Alt is the second alumnus to ... the Nobel Prize in 2003. , Alt is the ... Genetics at Harvard Medical School and an investigator at ...
(Date:10/14/2014)... new study published in Cancer Research shows ... and colon cancers—can promote the development of skin cancers ... and survival of sun-damaged skin cells. , Previously considered ... proteins called sirtuins that help regulate genomic stability and ... SIRT6 helps repair DNA damage, which can lead to ...
(Date:10/14/2014)... how to produce enough food to feed the world ... Organization of the United Nations predicts that food production ... feed a growing global population, and plants are one ... Plants—grains, cereals, fruits, vegetables, and more—feed humans directly ... tap into our knowledge of how plants work to ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Brandeis awards 44th Rosenstiel Award to pioneering geneticist Fred Alt 2Two-faced gene: SIRT6 prevents some cancers but promotes sun-induced skin cancer 2Building a bridge from basic botany to applied agriculture 2Building a bridge from basic botany to applied agriculture 3
... clear how salt, a scourge to agriculture, halts the growth ... the Carnegie Institution,s Jos Dinneny and Lina Duan, found that ... that an inner layer of tissue in the branching roots ... a stress hormone, which stops root growth. The study, published ...
... In a speech later today, Minister for Universities and ... research in Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy. The funding, from ... create networks and collaborative research between academia and industry ... UK and new ,green collar, jobs. The funding ...
... COLUMBIA, Mo. More than one-third of Americans are ... such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular problems. In ... have suggested ways to improve the health outcomes of ... at the University of Missouri suggests certain exercises that ...
Cached Biology News:Breakthrough: How salt stops plant growth 2£35 million to support research for vital industrial sector 2Women must do more to reap same positive health outcomes as men, MU research suggests 2
(Date:10/20/2014)... 20, 2014 Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc. (NYSE ... signed a Notice of Grant Award (NGA) with ... October 1, 2014.  The NGA provides for the ... release of additional grant funds pursuant to the ... clinical development of Asterias, product, AST-OPC1. The grant ...
(Date:10/20/2014)... PureTech , a science and technology development ... today the closing of a $55 million growth ... a $120 Billion group of funds. The funding ... forward and to advance new healthcare related products ... really go for the big ideas that can ...
(Date:10/19/2014)... Latin American hardware encryption display market report defines and ... forecast of revenue. This market was valued at $165.0 ... million by 2018, at a CAGR of 70.3% from ... the Latin American hardware encryption market report to get ... provides a glimpse of the segmentation of the market, ...
(Date:10/19/2014)... October 19, 2014 The Asian Automatic ... Asian with analysis and forecast of revenue. The Automatic ... to around $463.9 million by 2018, at a developing ... through the TOC of the Asian Automatic patient billing ... provided. This also provides a glimpse of the segmentation ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Asterias Biotherapeutics Announces Notice of Grant Award with CIRM for Phase 1/2a Clinical Trial of AST-OPC1 in Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury 2Asterias Biotherapeutics Announces Notice of Grant Award with CIRM for Phase 1/2a Clinical Trial of AST-OPC1 in Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury 3Asterias Biotherapeutics Announces Notice of Grant Award with CIRM for Phase 1/2a Clinical Trial of AST-OPC1 in Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury 4PureTech Announces Expansion with Oversubscribed $55M Funding Round 2PureTech Announces Expansion with Oversubscribed $55M Funding Round 3PureTech Announces Expansion with Oversubscribed $55M Funding Round 4PureTech Announces Expansion with Oversubscribed $55M Funding Round 5PureTech Announces Expansion with Oversubscribed $55M Funding Round 6The Latin American hardware encryption display market is expected to reach $2,366.8 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 2The Latin American hardware encryption display market is expected to reach $2,366.8 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 3The Asian Automatic patient billing market is estimated to grow to around $463.9 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 2The Asian Automatic patient billing market is estimated to grow to around $463.9 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 3
... InterMune, Inc.,(Nasdaq: ITMN ) announced today that it ... 6, 2008 at 4:00 p.m. Eastern time.,A live conference ... 4:30 p.m.,Eastern time that same day., To access ... ID# 71184785. To access the,webcast, please log on to ...
... in U.S. Phase II Study,of Nitazoxanide in Treatment-Naive ... Fla., Oct. 28 Romark Laboratories, a privately,held ... nitazoxanide at the upcoming 59th Annual Meeting of ... (AASLD), also known as The,Liver Meeting(R), and the ...
... Affitech AS, the human,therapeutic antibody company, today ... to the innovative diabody technology originally owned ... vaccine company. Also known as,bi-specific single chain ... attributes make them attractive,candidates for a variety ...
Cached Biology Technology:InterMune to Release Third Quarter 2008 Financial Results on November 6 2Romark Laboratories Announces Presentation of New Nitazoxanide Data at 59th Annual AASLD Meeting and 50th Anniversary IASL Meeting in San Francisco 2Affitech Acquires Pharmexa's Diabody Technology 2
...
Peptide-affinity Purified Polyclonal Antibody to MAML1 / Mastermind Peptide with sequence VLPTCPMAEFALPR, from N Terminus of the protein sequence according to NP_055572....
Mouse monoclonal [5H9] to RAD52 ( Abpromise for all tested applications). entrezGeneID: 5893 SwissProtID: P43351...
... the family of calcium binding proteins such as ... of an alpha and beta chain whereas S100B ... protein is also expressed in the antigen presenting ... and interdigitating reticulum cells in the paracortex of ...
Biology Products: