Navigation Links
New mechanical insights into wound healing and scar tissue formation
Date:12/17/2007

New research published today in the Journal of Cell Biology illuminates the mechanical factors that play a critical role in the differentiation and function of fibroblasts, connective tissue cells that play a role in wound healing and scar tissue formation.

When we are injured, the body launches a complex rescue operation. Specialized cells called fibroblasts lurking just beneath the surface of the skin jump into action, enter the provisional wound matrix (the clot) and start secreting collagen to close the wound as fast as possible. This matrix is initially soft and loaded with growth factors. The fibroblasts "crawl" around the matrix, pulling and reorganizing the fibers. The matrix grows stiffer, and at a certain point, the fibroblasts stop migrating and, like Popeye, change into powerful contractile cells, anchoring themselves to the matrix and pulling the edges of the wound together.

The research reported today reveals for the first time that a mechanical mechanism is crucial for this switch from migrating to contractile cells. To make this change, the fibroblasts need to get at their "spinach" -- the growth factor sitting in the matrix which, once liberated, stimulates the production of smooth-muscle proteins. Previously, researchers postulated that the fibroblasts did this by digesting the matrix. But EPFL scientist Boris Hinz, doctoral student Pierre-Jean Wipff and their colleagues have discovered that the cells unlock the growth factor via a purely mechanical process. With experiments using novel cell culture substrates of varying rigidity, they found that at a certain point, the matrix is sufficiently rigid that cell-exerted force allows the growth factor to pop out, like candy from a wrapper. Once the growth factor is available, the fibroblast expresses the contractile proteins, sticks more firmly to the matrix and starts to contract, pulling the matrix tightly together. In the process it liberates yet more growth factor that in turn stimulates other fibroblasts to become contractile. The mechanical nature of the switch ensures that the contraction only develops when the matrix is "ready."

Although this process will heal a wound quickly, if left unchecked, it can also lead to a buildup of fibrous tissue. Following trauma to vital organs such as the heart, lung, liver and kidney, overzealous fibroblasts can continue to build fibrous strands, leading to scar tissue buildup that can impair the organ's function. This condition, called "fibrosis", can be fatal. Fibroblasts are also the culprits in problems caused by implants -- if the implant is too smooth, it never becomes properly incorporated into the connective tissue. But if it is too rough, scar tissue develops around it and it won't function properly. Occasionally, following plastic surgery, unsightly excessive scar tissue can develop in the skin as well. The process can also cause problems in mesenchymal stem cell cultures -- if the culture's substrate is stiff, considerable efforts have to be made to prevent the stem cells from turning prematurely into fibroblasts instead of the desired cell type. Controlling the rigidity of the cell culture is therefore critical.

This new understanding of the mechanical nature of fibroblast activation could be used to reduce or prevent fibrosis from occurring, says Hinz, without inhibiting the growth factor, which serves many other vital functions in the body. There are several possibilities: "You could interfere with the way the cells grab onto the growth factor complex, you could interfere with their attachment points on the matrix, and you could interfere with their contractile forces so that the matrix never gets stiff enough to liberate the growth factor," he suggests.


'/>"/>

Contact: Mary Parlange
mary.parlange@epfl.ch
41-216-937-022
Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne  
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Improving detection of nuclear smuggling goal of computer model of mechanical engineer
2. Stomach stem cell discovery could bring cancer insights
3. KGI professor contributes new insights on jumping genes
4. Study involving more than 100 scientists provides new insights on green algae
5. New insights into how lasers cut flesh
6. Tumor genome analysis unveils new insights into lung cancer
7. New insights into the fate of antiparasitics in manure and manured soils
8. Hinode: new insights on the origin of solar wind
9. Sea cucumbers fast track organ regrowth by healing their wounds
10. A step toward tissue-engineered heart structures for children
11. Researchers create system to build transplant tissue
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
New mechanical insights into wound healing and scar tissue formation
(Date:3/30/2017)... , March 30, 2017 Trends, opportunities and ... and behavioral), by technology (fingerprint, AFIS, iris recognition, facial ... and others), by end use industry (government and law ... financial and banking, and others), and by region ( ... , Asia Pacific , and the ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... N.Y. , March 27, 2017  Catholic ... Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Analytics for ... EMR Adoption Model sm . In addition, CHS ... of U.S. hospitals using an electronic medical record ... for its high level of EMR usage in ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... , March 23, 2017 The report "Gesture Recognition and ... Industry, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the market ... CAGR of 29.63% between 2017 and 2022. Continue ... ... ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... Singh ... orphan drug designation to SBT-100, its novel anti-STAT3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of ... SBT-100 is able to cross the cell membrane and bind intracellular STAT3 and ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... October 10, 2017 , ... ... program has won a US2020 STEM Mentoring Award. Representatives of the FirstHand program ... in Volunteer Experience from US2020. , US2020’s mission is to change the trajectory ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... 2017 SomaGenics announced the receipt of a ... RealSeq®-SC (Single Cell), expected to be the first commercially ... microRNAs) from single cells using NGS methods. The NIH,s ... accelerate development of approaches to analyze the heterogeneity of ... techniques for measuring levels of mRNAs in individual cells ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... DIEGO , Oct. 9, 2017  BioTech ... biological mechanism by which its ProCell stem cell ... critical limb ischemia.  The Company, demonstrated that treatment ... amount of limbs saved as compared to standard ... the molecule HGF resulted in reduction of therapeutic ...
Breaking Biology Technology: