Navigation Links
MicroRNA cocktail helps turn skin cells into stem cells
Date:2/2/2011

LA JOLLA, Calif., February 1, 2011 Stem cells are ideal tools to understand disease and develop new treatments; however, they can be difficult to obtain in necessary quantities. In particular, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be an arduous task because reprogramming differentiated adult skin cells into iPS cells requires many steps and the efficiency is very low researchers might end up with only a few iPS cells even if they started with a million skin cells. A team at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) set out to improve this process. In a paper published February 1 in The EMBO Journal, the team identified several specific microRNAs (miRNAs) that are important during reprogramming and exploited them to make the transition from skin cell to iPS cell more efficient.

"We identified several molecular barriers early in the reprogramming process and figured out how to remove them using miRNA," said Tariq Rana, Ph.D., director of the RNA Biology program at Sanford-Burnham and senior author of the study. "This is significant because it will enhance our ability to use iPS cells to model diseases in the laboratory and search for new therapies."

"Our study not only presents new mechanistic insights about the role of non-coding RNAs during somatic cell reprogramming but also provides proof of principle using microRNAs as great enhancers for iPS cell generation," added Zhonghan Li, graduate student and first author of the study.

MiRNAs are small strands of genetic material that may play a major role in many diseases by gumming up protein production. In this study, Dr. Rana and his colleagues observed that three groups of miRNAs, including two known individually as miR-93 and miR-106b, are activated as part of a defense mechanism that occurs when cells are stressed by the standard skin cell reprogramming process. Digging deeper, they determined that miR-93 and miR-106b target two proteins called Tgfbr2 and p21, which slow up the path to iPS cells by halting the cell cycle the cell's process of duplicating its DNA and dividing into two identical "daughter" cells and promoting cell death.

Not only does this finding reveal more about the genetic underpinnings of iPS cell formation, but the researchers took advantage of this new information to speed up the process. When they added extra miR-93 and miR-106b to skin cells, Tgfbr2 and p21 were blocked, more cells survived, and iPS cells were more readily obtained.

"In some respects, this work may be regarded as a landmark contribution to the field of stem cell biology in general and cellular reprogramming in particular," said Evan Y. Snyder, M.D., Ph.D., director of Sanford-Burnham's Stem Cells and Regenerative Biology program. "Up until now, cellular differentiation and de-differentiation has focused principally on the expression of genes; this work indicates that the strategic non-expression of genes may be equally important. The work has demonstrated that miRNAs do function in the reprogramming process and that the generation of iPSCs can be greatly enhanced by modulating miRNA action. In addition to helping us generate better tools for the stem cell field, such findings inevitably facilitate our understanding of normal and abnormal stem cell behavior during development and in disease states."


'/>"/>

Contact: Josh Baxt
jbaxt@sanfordburnham.org
858-795-5236
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. MicroRNA suppresses prostate cancer stem cells and metastasis
2. MicroRNAs dictate the Epstein-Barr virus elaborate waiting game, cancer formation
3. Newly identified RNA sequence is key in microRNA processing
4. Red blood cells have a tiny but effective protector -- microRNA
5. Study of microRNA helps NIH scientists unlock secrets of immune cells
6. MicroRNA network study implicates rewired interactions in cancer
7. Pitt researchers discover big role for microRNA in lethal lung fibrosis
8. Penn biologists determine microRNA activity is suppressed in mouse ovum
9. Scientists use microRNAs to track evolutionary history for first time
10. MicroRNA in human saliva may help diagnose oral cancer
11. MicroRNAs help control HIV life cycle
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/12/2016)... WearablesResearch.com , a brand of Troubadour Research & ... Q1 wave of its quarterly wearables survey. A particular ... a program where they would receive discounts for sharing ... "We were surprised to see that so many ... CEO of Troubadour Research, "primarily because there are segments ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... 28, 2016 First quarter 2016:   ... compared with the first quarter of 2015 The gross ... M (loss: 18.8) and the operating margin was 40% (-13) ... Cash flow from operations was SEK 249.9 M (21.2) , ... is unchanged, SEK 7,000-8,500 M. The operating margin for ...
(Date:4/15/2016)... CHICAGO , April 15, 2016  A ... companies make more accurate underwriting decisions in a ... offering timely, competitively priced and high-value life insurance ... health screenings. With Force Diagnostics, rapid ... and lifestyle data readings (blood pressure, weight, pulse, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 27, 2016 , ... Parallel ... clinical trials, announced today the Clinical Reach Virtual Patient Encounter CONSULT module ... circle with the physician and clinical trial team. , Using the CONSULT module, patients ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... -- Regular discussions on a range of subjects including policies, debt ... said Poloz. Speaking at a lecture to the ... pointed to the country,s inflation target, which is set by ... "In certain areas there needs to ... goals, why not sit down and address strategy together?" ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... 23, 2016 , ... UAS LifeSciences, one of the leading ... UP4™ Probiotics, into Target stores nationwide. The company, which has been manufacturing high ... its list of well-respected retailers. This list includes such fine stores as Whole ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... YM (Yeast and Mold) microbial test has received AOAC Research Institute approval 061601. ... microbial tests introduced last year,” stated Bob Salter, Vice President of Regulatory and ...
Breaking Biology Technology: