But, he adds, while bottom-up approaches have been extremely useful in biology, they haven't played as significant a role in technology, "because we don't have a great grasp on how to design systems that build themselves. Most examples of bottom-up technologies are specific chemical processes that work great for a particular task, but don't easily generalize for constructing more complex structures."
To understand how complexity can be programmed into bottom-up molecular fabrication processes, Winfree and his colleagues study and understand the processes--or algorithms--that generate organization not just in computers but also in the natural world.
"Tasks can be solved by carrying out well-defined rules, and these rules can be carried out by a mindless mechanism such as a computer," he says. "The same set of rules can perform different tasks when given different inputs, and there exist 'universal programs' that can perform any task required of it, as specified in its input. Your laptop is such a universal computer; it can run any software that you download, and in principle, any feasible task could be programmed."
These principles also have been exploited by natural evolution, Winfree says: "Every cell, it appears, is a kind of universal computer that can be instructed in seemingly limitless ways by a DNA genome that specifies what chemical processes to execute, thus building an active organism. The aim of my lab has been to understand algorithms and information within molecular systems."
Winfree's investigations into algorithmic self-assembly earned him a MacArthur "genius" prize in 2000; his collaborator, Paul W. K. Rothemund, a senior research associate at Caltech and a coauthor of the PNAS paper, was awarded the same no-strings-attached grant in 2007 for his work designing scaffolded "DNA origami" structures that self-assemble into nearly arbitrary shapes (such as a smiley face and
|Contact: Kathy Svitil|
California Institute of Technology