Navigation Links
A mother's salt intake could be key to prenatal kidney development

Bethesda, Md. (July 6, 2011) A new animal study from Europe has drawn an association between pregnant mothers' sodium intake and their newborn's kidney development. Among the most significant aspects of the study's findings is that either too much or too little salt during pregnancy had an adverse effect on the prenatal development of the offspring's kidneys. The consequence of such disruption can lead to high blood pressure in later years.

These are the conclusions reached in the study, "Both High and Low Maternal Salt Intake in Pregnancy Alters Kidney Development in the Offspring," conducted by Nadezda Koleganova, Grzegorz Piecha, Annett Mller, Monika Weckbach, Peter Schirmacher, and Marie-Luise Gross-Weissmann, Eberhard Ritz and Luis Eduardo Becker, all with the University of Heidelberg in Heidelberg, DE; and Jens Randel Nyengaard of the University of Aarhus, Aarhus, DK. Their study is published in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology--Renal Physiology.


This research builds upon past studies that recognize that excessive salt intake causes secretion of endogenous cardiotonic steroids such as marinobufagenin (MBG). For the pregnant female, this can be harmful since high concentrations of MBG are correlated to low birth-weight and higher blood pressure in the offspring.

Previous research has also linked high blood pressure with a low nephron number, critical because the nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. The nephron eliminates wastes from the body, regulates blood volume and blood pressure, controls levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulates blood pH. Its functions are vital to life and are regulated by the endocrine system.


Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low, intermediate or high sodium diets during pregnancy and lactation. The litters were standardized to identical size at birth with 1:1 male to female ratio. The offspring were separated from their mothers at four weeks of age and subsequently received the intermediate sodium diet. The animals had free access to water and food and their body weight, food and water consumption were monitored weekly.

The kidney structure was assessed at postnatal weeks 1 and 12, and the expression of proteins known to be involved in kidney development were examined at birth and 1 week of age. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry in male offspring between the ages of two and nine months.


The researchers found that the number of glomeruli (the main structural unit of the kidney) during weeks 1-12 were significantly lower, and the measured blood pressure for males after the fifth month was higher in offspring of mothers on high- or low- compared with intermediate-sodium diet. High salt diet was paralleled by higher concentrations of marinobufagenin in the amniotic fluid and an increase in the expression of both GDNF and its inhibitor, sprouty-1 in the offspring's kidney. The expression of FGF-10, a genetic signal responsible for kidney development, was lower in offspring of mothers on low-sodium diet and the expression of Pax-2 and FGF-2, tissue-specific genes that determine cell lineages, tissue patterning, and cellular proliferation was lower in offspring of mothers on high-sodium diet.

Importance of the Findings

Taken together the above findings indicate that both too low and too high maternal salt intakes retard development of new glomeruli, resulting in a nephron deficit. If the findings in the animals in this study can be extrapolated to humans, both too low and too high salt intake during pregnancy would be a risk factor for hypertension and renal damage in the offspring.

In women, each mother-to-be has specific health issues and conditions that require guidance from a health provider. This study sheds light on the issue of salt intake during pregnancy and draws attention to the possible consequences of consuming too much or too little salt during pregnancy and the impact it may have on the kidney development of an offspring.


Contact: Donna Krupa
American Physiological Society

Related biology news :

1. New mothers can learn a lot from watching their babies
2. Parenting stress affects new mothers’ postpartum lifestyle
3. Preterm mothers milk contains less antioxidants than mothers completing their gestation
4. Mothers diets have biggest influence on children eating healthy
5. New report suggests why risk for sudden infant death syndrome is greater in babies of mothers who smoke
6. Successful mothers get help from their friends: Dolphin study
7. Discus fish parent young like mammalian mothers
8. Black mothers cite lack of desire as top reasons for not breastfeeding
9. About 94 percent of breastfeeding mothers do not follow a proper diet
10. Giving DHA supplements to breastfeeding mothers
11. HPV vaccination more likely if mothers approve
Post Your Comments:
(Date:10/29/2015)... -- Connected health pioneer, Joseph C. Kvedar , MD, ... and wellness, and the business opportunities that arise from ... of Healthy Things . Long before health and ... Kvedar, vice president, Connected Health, Partners HealthCare, was creating ... from the hospital or doctor,s office into the day-to-day ...
(Date:10/27/2015)... , October 27, 2015 ... Semantic Gaze Mapping technology (ASGM) automatically maps data from ... Tracking Glasses , so that they can be ... --> Munich, Germany , October 28-29, ... maps data from mobile eye tracking videos created with ...
(Date:10/26/2015)...  Delta ID Inc., a company focused on bringing ... devices, announced its ActiveIRIS® technology powers the iris recognition ... by NTT DOCOMO, INC in Japan ... to include iris recognition technology, after a very successful ... May 2015, world,s first smartphone to have this capability. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/27/2015)... , November 27, 2015 ... Growing popularity of companion diagnostics is ... cancer biomarkers market with pharmaceutical companies and ... companion diagnostic tests. . ... Complete report on global cancer biomarkers ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... India , November 26, 2015 ... The Global Biobanking Market 2016 - 2020 report ... by maintaining integrity and quality in long-term samples, ... enabling long-term cost-effectiveness. Automation minimizes manual errors such ... the technical efficiency. Further, it plays a vital ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... Studies reveal the differences in species of ... way for more effective treatment for one of the most ... --> --> Gum disease is ... yet relatively little was understood about the bacteria associated with ... by researchers from the WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition together ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... , Nov. 25, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - Aeterna Zentaris ... that its business and prospects remain fundamentally strong ... Zoptrex™ (zoptarelin doxorubicin) recently received DSMB recommendation to ... completion following review of the final interim efficacy ... 2 Primary Endpoint in men with heavily pretreated ...
Breaking Biology Technology: