Navigation Links
Coenzyme A


Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is adapted from pantothenic acid and adenosine triphosphate and used in metabolism in areas such as fatty acid oxidization and the citric acid cycle. Its main function is to carry acyl groups such as acetyl as thioesters. A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acetyl group is also referred to as acetyl-CoA.

Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule itself. It is the precursor to HMG CoA, which is a vital component in cholesterol and ketone synthesis. Furthermore, it contributes the acetyl group to acetylcholine; the addition of the acetyl group to choline a reaction that is catalysed by choline acetyltransferase. Its main task is conveying the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production.

The conversion of pyruvate into Acetyl-CoA is referred to as the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Reaction. It is catalyzed by an enzyme-complex called pyruvate dehydrogenase. The enzyme consists of 60 subunits: 24 pyruvate dehydrogenase, 24 dihydrolipoyl transacetylase , and 12 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (commonly denoted E1, E2, and E3). 24 pyruvate dehydrogenase has the coenzyme TPP incorporated into it, 24 dihydrolipoyl transacetylase has lipoate and coenzyme A, and 12 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase has the coenzymes FAD and NAD+. Through a complex reaction, pyruvate is decarboxylated and turned into acetaldehyde, then attached to coenzyme A while NAD+ is subsequently reduced to NADH and H+.

See also


'"/>


(Date:8/31/2014)... is developing drugs that are highly effective against a ... patient. Such properties are directly related to the 3D ... have a shape that is perfectly complementary to a ... specificity. Publishing in Nature Chemistry , EPFL scientists ... the 3D structure of bioactive peptides and enhance their ...
(Date:8/31/2014)... is available in French . ... just published in the prestigious Nature Neuroscience journal ... Centre of the Douglas Mental Health University Institute and McGill ... circuitry and dynamic mechanisms controlling memory as well of the ... sub-region named the subiculum. , In 2009, they developed ...
(Date:8/29/2014)... how the repeated climatic shifts over the last ... genetic diversity, a team of researchers led by ... Carnaval developed a new biodiversity metric called "phylogeographic ... the genetic variation within species is restricted in ... of biology, and 14 other researchers from institutions ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):A new synthetic amino acid for an emerging class of drugs 2A new synthetic amino acid for an emerging class of drugs 3Memory and Alzheimer's: Towards a better comprehension of the dynamic mechanisms 2CCNY team defines new biodiversity metric 2
... published recently in PLoS One delivers new insight ... rattlesnakes may be engaged in an arms race with opossums, ... long been known to eat venomous snakes, this fact has ... of snake venom. Instead, snake venom is usually seen as ...
... see if you can spot the tallest tree. If you,re in ... there are few and far between, and tend to hunch low ... forests make the exercise a bit more difficult. And in the ... the eye can estimate. Knowing how tall trees can grow ...
... the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that ... encouraging cancer stem cells to grow. Cancer stem cells ... drive its growth and spread. Traditional cancer treatments do not ... In a study published online in the Journal ...
Cached Biology News:Rapid venom evolution in pit vipers may be defensive 2Rapid venom evolution in pit vipers may be defensive 3MIT: The tallest tree in the land 2MIT: The tallest tree in the land 3Cancer stem cells recruit normal stem cells to fuel ovarian cancer, U-M study finds 2
Other biology definitionOther Tags